Serotonergic modulation of crayfish hindgut
Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30302-5030, USA. Biological Bulletin
(Impact Factor: 1.64).
The crayfish hindgut is a morphologically differentiated tube that varies along its length in the distribution of muscles and glands, contractile properties, serotonergic innervation, patterns of 5-HT receptor expression, and sensitivity to serotonin (5-HT). Anatomical differences divide the hindgut into five distinct segments along its length. Spontaneous pulsatile contractions produced by the isolated hindgut decrease in force and increase in frequency along the anterior-posterior axis. Central input to the hindgut comes from a large cluster of 5-HT-immunoreactive neurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion that form a large nerve plexus on the hindgut. 5-HT(1alpha) and 5-HT(2beta) receptors vary in their distribution along the hindgut, and are associated with longitudinal and circular muscles and with axon collaterals of the 5-HT-immunoreactive neurons. Application of 30 nmol l(-1) to 1 mumol l(-1) 5-HT to rostral, middle, or caudal sections of hindgut produced tension changes that varied with the concentration and section. 5-HT also initiated antiperistaltic waves in the posterior hindgut. These results indicate that 5-HT is an important neuromodulator for initiating contractions and coordinating activity in the different functional compartments along the rostral-to-caudal axis of the hindgut.
Available from: Iain J McGaw
- "This sustained slow contraction is ideal for movement of wastes along the hindgut and expulsion of feces (Brenner and Wilkens 2001; Wrong et al. 2003). Distinct physiological regions of the hindgut are evident that respond in different ways to neuromodulators (Musolf et al. 2009). For example , the posterior portion of the hindgut acts not only to expel feces but also functions in ion and water uptake (Mykles 1979; Factor 1995) and this region of the gut can undergo forward or reverse peristalsis depending on the animal's needs (Ebara 1969; Mercier and Lee 2002). "
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ABSTRACT: This article reviews the mechanical processes associated with digestion in decapod crustaceans. The decapod crustacean gut is essentially an internal tube that is divided into three functional areas, the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The foregut houses the gastric mill apparatus which functions in mastication (cutting and grinding) of the ingested food. The processed food passes into the pyloric region of the foregut which controls movement of digesta into the midgut region and hepatopancreas where intracellular digestion takes place. The movements of the foregut muscles and gastric mill are controlled via nerves from the stomatogastric ganglion. Contraction rates of the gastric mill and foregut muscles can be influenced by environmental factors such as salinity, temperature, and oxygen levels. Gut contraction rates depend on the magnitude of the environmental perturbation and the physiological ability of each species. The subsequent transit of the digesta from the foregut into the midgut and through the hindgut has been followed in a wide variety of crustaceans. Transit rates are commonly used as a measure of food processing rates and are keys in understanding strategies of adaptation to trophic conditions. Transit times vary from as little as 30 min in small copepods to over 150 h in larger lobsters. Transit times can be influenced by the size and the type of the meal, the size and activity level of an animal and changes in environmental temperature, salinity and oxygen tension. Ultimately, changes in transit times influence digestive efficiency (the amount of nutrients absorbed across the gut wall). Digestive efficiencies tend to be high for carnivorous crustaceans, but somewhat lower for those that consume plant material. A slowing of the transit rate allows more time for nutrient absorption but this may be confounded by changes in the environment, which may reduce the energy available for active transport processes. Given the large number of articles already published on the stomatogastric ganglion and its control mechanisms, this area will continue to be of interest to scientists. There is also a push towards studying animals in a more natural environment or even in the field and investigation of the energetic costs of the components of digestion under varying biotic and environmental conditions will undoubtedly be an area that expands in the future.
Journal of Comparative Physiology B 12/2012; 183(4). DOI:10.1007/s00360-012-0730-3 · 2.62 Impact Factor
Available from: PubMed Central
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the report is to describe dissection techniques for preparing the crayfish hindgut and to demonstrate how to make physiological recordings with a force transducer to monitor the strength of contraction. In addition, we demonstrate how to visually monitor peristaltic activity, which can be used as a bioassay for various peptides, biogenic amines and neurotransmitters. This preparation is amenable to student laboratories in physiology and for demonstrating pharmacological concepts to students. This preparation has been in use for over 100 years, and it still offers much as a model for investigating the generation and regulation of peristaltic rhythms and for describing the mechanisms underlying their modulation. The pharmacological assays and receptor sub-typing that were started over 50 years ago on the hindgut still contribute to research today. This robust preparation is well suited to training students in physiology and pharmacology.
Journal of Visualized Experiments 01/2011; DOI:10.3791/2324 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In an attempt to identify genes encoding thioester-containing proteins in the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, three different cDNAs were found. A phylogenetic analysis of these proteins indicates that they can be classified into two subfamilies: two alpha-2-macroglobulins (Pl-A2M1, Pl-A2M2) showing a close similarity to shrimp A2M, and one insect TEP-like protein (Pl-TEP). This is the first report of an insect TEP-like protein in a crustacean. Crayfish Pl-A2M1, Pl-A2M2 and Pl-TEP cDNAs encode proteins with 1480, 1586 or 1507 amino acids, respectively. Pl-A2M1, Pl-A2M2 and Pl-TEP have the basic domain structure and functionally important residues for each molecule, and their mRNA was detected in different parts of the body, suggesting that they may have different functions. Pl-A2M1 was mainly expressed in hemocytes and Pl-A2M2 was highly expressed in heart and nerve, while Pl-TEP was exclusively expressed in cuticular tissues such as gill and intestine. RNA interference of Pl-TEP in vivo resulted in that these animals were slightly less resistant when fed with the bacterium, Pseudomonas libanensis/gessardii. Furthermore, when TEP activity was blocked using methylamine followed by bacterial feeding, the animals were killed to a higher extent compared to a control group. Taken together, this indicates that Pl-TEP and/or Pl-A2M1, Pl-A2M2 may be important for the immune defense in crayfish intestine and function as a pattern recognition protein in crayfish cuticular tissues.
Insect biochemistry and molecular biology 12/2011; 42(2):71-80. DOI:10.1016/j.ibmb.2011.10.006 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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