The Effects of Compression Garments on Recovery

Sports Council for Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 09/2009; 23(6):1786-94. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b42589
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to investigate whether wearing lower-body compression garments attenuate indices of muscle damage and decrements in performance following drop-jump training. Seven trained female and four trained male subjects undertook blood collection for creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a mid-thigh girth measurement, and reported their perceived muscle soreness (PMS). A series of performance tests were then completed including sprints (5 m, 10 m, and 20 m), a 5-0-5 agility test, and a countermovement jump test. In a randomized crossover experimental design, separated by 1 week, subjects completed 5 x 20 maximal drop-jumps, followed immediately after exercise by either wearing graduated compression tights (CG) or undertook passive recovery as a control (CON) for 48 hours. CK, LDH, mid-thigh girth, and PMS were retested after 24 hours and 48 hours of recovery. The performance tests were repeated after 48 hours of recovery. Analysis of variance for repeated measures indicated that for female subjects, CK values were elevated after 24-hour recovery (p = 0.020) and a greater PMS was observed after 48-hour recovery in the CON condition (p = 0.002) but not for the CG condition. For all the subjects (n = 11), a greater PMS was observed after 48-hour recovery in the CON condition (p = 0.001) but not the CG condition. Significant increases in time were reported for 10-m (p = 0.016, 0.004) and 20-m sprints (p = 0.004, 0.001) in both the CON and CG conditions and for the 5-m sprint (p = 0.014) in the CG condition. All other parameters were unchanged in either condition. Data indicates that CK responses and PMS might be attenuated by wearing compression tights in some participants after drop-jump training; however, no benefit in performance was observed.

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Available from: Kevin G Thompson, Dec 15, 2014
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    • "Besides, they can decrease muscle soreness (MS) (Ali et al., 2007; Jakeman et al., 2010a; Kraemer et al, 2001a, 2001b; Kraemer et al., 2010) and enhance the clearance of blood lactate ([La–] p ) (Chatard et al., 2004) and creatine kinase (CK-3) (Duffield & Portus, 2007; Gill et al., 2006; Kraemer et al, 2001a; 2001b) following exercise. Nevertheless, others studies found no beneficial effect of CG on speed and explosive performance during recovery (Carling et al., 1995; French et al., 2008; Kraemer et al., 2010), ROM (French et al., 2008; Kraemer et al, 2001a; 2001b), MS (Carling et al., 1995; Davies et al., 2009; French et al., 2008; Trenell et al., 2006), or clearance of [La–] p (Duffield & Portus, 2007) and CK-3(Davies et al., 2009; French et al., 2008; Jakeman et al., 2010a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim was to identify benefits of compression garments used for recovery of exercised-induced muscle damage. Methods: Computer-based literature research was performed in September 2015 using four online databases: Medline (PubMed), Cochrane, WOS (Web Of Science) and Scopus. The analysis of risk of bias was completed in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration Guidelines. Mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated with Hedges' g for continuous outcomes. A random effect meta-analysis model was used. Systematic differences (heterogeneity) were assessed with I(2) statistic. Results: Most results obtained had high heterogeneity, thus their interpretation should be careful. Our findings showed that creatine kinase (standard mean difference=-0.02, 9 studies) was unaffected when using compression garments for recovery purposes. In contrast, blood lactate concentration was increased (standard mean difference=0.98, 5 studies). Applying compression reduced lactate dehydrogenase (standard mean difference=-0.52, 2 studies), muscle swelling (standard mean difference=-0.73, 5 studies) and perceptual measurements (standard mean difference=-0.43, 15 studies). Analyses of power (standard mean difference=1.63, 5 studies) and strength (standard mean difference=1.18, 8 studies) indicate faster recovery of muscle function after exercise. Conclusions: These results suggest that the application of compression clothing may aid in the recovery of exercise induced muscle damage, although the findings need corroboration.
    Physiology & Behavior 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.10.027 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    • "Commercially available compression garments of multiple producers are available on the market, engineered not only to snuggly fit the body but also to potentially improve exercise performance [6], and benefits such as improved recovery when worn after endurance [2] [7] [8] or strength exercise [9] have been observed in some while not in all studies [10] [11] [12] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Compression garments are often worn during exercise and allegedly have ergogenic and/or physiological effects. In this study, we compared hemodynamics and running performance while wearing compression and loose-fit breeches. We hypothesized that in neutral-warm environment compression breeches impair performance by diminishing body cooling via evaporative sweat loss and redistributing blood from active musculature to skin leading to a larger rise in body temperature and prolonging recovery of hemodynamics after exercise. Methods: Changes in hemodynamics (leg blood flow, heart rate, and blood pressure during orthoclinostatic test), calf muscle tissue oxygenation, and skin and core temperatures were measured in response to 30 min running (simulation of aerobic training session) followed by maximal 400 m sprint (evaluation of running performance) in recreationally active females (25.1 ± 4.2 yrs; 63.0 ± 8.6 kg) wearing compression or loose-fit breeches in randomized fashion. Results: Wearing compression breeches resulted in larger skin temperature rise under the garment during exercise and recovery (by about 1 °C, P < 0.05; statistical power > 85%), while core temperature dynamics and other measured parameters including circulation, running performance, and sensations were similar compared to wearing loose-fit breeches (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Compared with loose-fit breeches, compression breeches have neither positive nor negative physiological and performance effects for females running in thermoneutral environment.
    The Scientific World Journal 08/2014; 2014(353040). DOI:10.1155/2014/353040 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    • "In the present study we applied a pressure of ∼37 mmHg to the muscle’s belly which would be equivalent to a class III pressure. Based on the findings of a recent review the mean pressure in recovery related exercise studies ranged from 10–30 mmHg [11], [36]–[38]. Thus, the pressure applied in the present study is higher compared to other recovery studies. Based on the present data the external compression of the thigh muscle at this pressure seems to lead to a mechanical hindrance in muscle blood flow. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this experiment was to investigate skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose uptake in m. biceps (BF) and m. quadriceps femoris (QF) 1) during recovery from high intensity cycle exercise, and 2) while wearing a compression short applying ∼37 mmHg to the thigh muscles. Blood flow and glucose uptake were measured in the compressed and non-compressed leg of 6 healthy men by using positron emission tomography. At baseline blood flow in QF (P = 0.79) and BF (P = 0.90) did not differ between the compressed and the non-compressed leg. During recovery muscle blood flow was higher compared to baseline in both compressed (P<0.01) and non-compressed QF (P<0.001) but not in compressed (P = 0.41) and non-compressed BF (P = 0.05; effect size = 2.74). During recovery blood flow was lower in compressed QF (P<0.01) but not in BF (P = 0.26) compared to the non-compressed muscles. During baseline and recovery no differences in blood flow were detected between the superficial and deep parts of QF in both, compressed (baseline P = 0.79; recovery P = 0.68) and non-compressed leg (baseline P = 0.64; recovery P = 0.06). During recovery glucose uptake was higher in QF compared to BF in both conditions (P<0.01) with no difference between the compressed and non-compressed thigh. Glucose uptake was higher in the deep compared to the superficial parts of QF (compression leg P = 0.02). These results demonstrate that wearing compression shorts with ∼37 mmHg of external pressure reduces blood flow both in the deep and superficial regions of muscle tissue during recovery from high intensity exercise but does not affect glucose uptake in BF and QF.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e60923. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060923 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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