The Effects of Compression Garments on Recovery

Sports Council for Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 09/2009; 23(6):1786-94. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b42589
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate whether wearing lower-body compression garments attenuate indices of muscle damage and decrements in performance following drop-jump training. Seven trained female and four trained male subjects undertook blood collection for creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a mid-thigh girth measurement, and reported their perceived muscle soreness (PMS). A series of performance tests were then completed including sprints (5 m, 10 m, and 20 m), a 5-0-5 agility test, and a countermovement jump test. In a randomized crossover experimental design, separated by 1 week, subjects completed 5 x 20 maximal drop-jumps, followed immediately after exercise by either wearing graduated compression tights (CG) or undertook passive recovery as a control (CON) for 48 hours. CK, LDH, mid-thigh girth, and PMS were retested after 24 hours and 48 hours of recovery. The performance tests were repeated after 48 hours of recovery. Analysis of variance for repeated measures indicated that for female subjects, CK values were elevated after 24-hour recovery (p = 0.020) and a greater PMS was observed after 48-hour recovery in the CON condition (p = 0.002) but not for the CG condition. For all the subjects (n = 11), a greater PMS was observed after 48-hour recovery in the CON condition (p = 0.001) but not the CG condition. Significant increases in time were reported for 10-m (p = 0.016, 0.004) and 20-m sprints (p = 0.004, 0.001) in both the CON and CG conditions and for the 5-m sprint (p = 0.014) in the CG condition. All other parameters were unchanged in either condition. Data indicates that CK responses and PMS might be attenuated by wearing compression tights in some participants after drop-jump training; however, no benefit in performance was observed.

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    • "Commercially available compression garments of multiple producers are available on the market, engineered not only to snuggly fit the body but also to potentially improve exercise performance [6], and benefits such as improved recovery when worn after endurance [2] [7] [8] or strength exercise [9] have been observed in some while not in all studies [10] [11] [12] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Compression garments are often worn during exercise and allegedly have ergogenic and/or physiological effects. In this study, we compared hemodynamics and running performance while wearing compression and loose-fit breeches. We hypothesized that in neutral-warm environment compression breeches impair performance by diminishing body cooling via evaporative sweat loss and redistributing blood from active musculature to skin leading to a larger rise in body temperature and prolonging recovery of hemodynamics after exercise. Methods: Changes in hemodynamics (leg blood flow, heart rate, and blood pressure during orthoclinostatic test), calf muscle tissue oxygenation, and skin and core temperatures were measured in response to 30 min running (simulation of aerobic training session) followed by maximal 400 m sprint (evaluation of running performance) in recreationally active females (25.1 ± 4.2 yrs; 63.0 ± 8.6 kg) wearing compression or loose-fit breeches in randomized fashion. Results: Wearing compression breeches resulted in larger skin temperature rise under the garment during exercise and recovery (by about 1 °C, P < 0.05; statistical power > 85%), while core temperature dynamics and other measured parameters including circulation, running performance, and sensations were similar compared to wearing loose-fit breeches (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Compared with loose-fit breeches, compression breeches have neither positive nor negative physiological and performance effects for females running in thermoneutral environment.
    The Scientific World Journal 08/2014; 2014(353040). DOI:10.1155/2014/353040 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    • "In the present study we applied a pressure of ∼37 mmHg to the muscle’s belly which would be equivalent to a class III pressure. Based on the findings of a recent review the mean pressure in recovery related exercise studies ranged from 10–30 mmHg [11], [36]–[38]. Thus, the pressure applied in the present study is higher compared to other recovery studies. Based on the present data the external compression of the thigh muscle at this pressure seems to lead to a mechanical hindrance in muscle blood flow. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this experiment was to investigate skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose uptake in m. biceps (BF) and m. quadriceps femoris (QF) 1) during recovery from high intensity cycle exercise, and 2) while wearing a compression short applying ∼37 mmHg to the thigh muscles. Blood flow and glucose uptake were measured in the compressed and non-compressed leg of 6 healthy men by using positron emission tomography. At baseline blood flow in QF (P = 0.79) and BF (P = 0.90) did not differ between the compressed and the non-compressed leg. During recovery muscle blood flow was higher compared to baseline in both compressed (P<0.01) and non-compressed QF (P<0.001) but not in compressed (P = 0.41) and non-compressed BF (P = 0.05; effect size = 2.74). During recovery blood flow was lower in compressed QF (P<0.01) but not in BF (P = 0.26) compared to the non-compressed muscles. During baseline and recovery no differences in blood flow were detected between the superficial and deep parts of QF in both, compressed (baseline P = 0.79; recovery P = 0.68) and non-compressed leg (baseline P = 0.64; recovery P = 0.06). During recovery glucose uptake was higher in QF compared to BF in both conditions (P<0.01) with no difference between the compressed and non-compressed thigh. Glucose uptake was higher in the deep compared to the superficial parts of QF (compression leg P = 0.02). These results demonstrate that wearing compression shorts with ∼37 mmHg of external pressure reduces blood flow both in the deep and superficial regions of muscle tissue during recovery from high intensity exercise but does not affect glucose uptake in BF and QF.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e60923. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060923 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In elite soccer, players are frequently required to play consecutive matches interspersed by 3 days and complete physical performance recovery may not be achieved. Incomplete recovery might result in underperformance and injury. During congested schedules, recovery strategies are therefore required to alleviate post-match fatigue, regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. This article is Part I of a subsequent companion review and deals with post-match fatigue mechanisms and recovery kinetics of physical performance (sprints, jumps, maximal strength and technical skills), cognitive, subjective and biochemical markers. The companion review will analyse recovery strategies used in contemporary professional soccer. Soccer involves many physically demanding activities including sprinting, changes in running speed, changes of direction, jumps and tackles, as well as technical actions such as dribbling, shooting and passing. These activities lead to a post-match fatigue that is linked to a combination of dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. The magnitude of soccer match-induced fatigue, extrinsic factors (i.e. match result, quality of the opponent, match location, playing surface) and/or intrinsic factors (i.e. training status, age, gender, muscle fibre typology), potentially influence the time course of recovery. Recovery in soccer is a complex issue, reinforcing the need for future research to estimate the quantitative importance of fatigue mechanisms and identify influencing factors. Efficient and individualized recovery strategies may consequently be proposed.
    Sports Medicine 12/2012; 42(12). DOI:10.1007/BF03262308 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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