Benefits of negative social exchanges for emotional closeness.
ABSTRACT Negative exchanges in social relationships have traditionally been studied as having negative consequences. This study explored whether they might have positive effects for relationship closeness. The sample included 351 adults, aged between 18 and 91 years, residing in Hong Kong, China. Closeness of social partners to the participants was measured by the Social Convoy Questionnaire, and the levels of negative exchanges and social support from each social partner were assessed. Multilevel analyses revealed that more negative exchanges were associated with a more positive change in closeness over a 2-year period, even after statistically controlling for social support and sociostructural characteristics of the participant and the social partner. Findings extended our knowledge on the positive effects of negative exchanges and their moderating conditions.
- SourceAvailable from: wisc.edu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The discovery of benefits from living with adversity has been implicated in psychological well-being in numerous investigations, is pivotal to several prominent theories of cognitive adaptation to threat, and can be predicted by personality differences. This article summarizes the prevalence and adaptive significance of finding benefits from major medical problems, locates the place of benefit-finding in stress and coping theories, and examines how it may be shaped by specific psychological dispositions such as optimism and hope and by broader personality traits such as Extraversion and Openness to Experience. The distinction between beliefs about benefits from adversity (benefit-finding) and the use of such knowledge as a deliberate strategy of coping with the problem (benefit-reminding) is underscored and illustrated by daily process research on coping with chronic pain.Journal of Personality 01/1997; 64(4):899-922. · 2.44 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Until recent years, the research on caregivers of dependent dwelling elder subjects has dealt with the negative aspects of caregiving (e.g. depression, anxiety, anger). Recently, however, the positive aspects of caregiving have received considerable attention, although it is difficult to define these characteristics. The aim of this study is to determine some factors which can be seen as predictors of the positive aspects experienced by caregivers. We have carried out a cross-sectional study on 111 informal caregivers of dependent elderly patients who were assessed by a semi-structured interview and by standardised questionnaires. The Caregiving Satisfaction Scale was used as the main outcome measure. Caregivers experienced high levels of caregiving satisfaction (mean +/- S.D. = 22.38+/-5.39). In most cases, caring for elderly and dependent relatives had a positive impact on caregivers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that satisfaction was associated with better previous affectionate relationships between the caregivers and the dependents, with being caregiver by own initiative, with maintaining leisure time, with less use of venting emotions, and with caregiver not working out of home. These findings suggest that the positive aspects of caregiving are mainly related to specific characteristics of the caregivers. Furthermore, caregiving satisfaction was not related to aspects of the stressors.Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 01/2005; 41(1):81-94. · 1.70 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The importance of kin relationships was investigated across adulthood with 5 samples (total N = 1,365). Within the personal networks, the genetic relatedness with relationship partners predicted subjective closeness (mean r = .50) and social support (mean r = .13). Effects were robust in 2 samples when controlling for residential proximity and contact frequency. These intraindividual correlations showed considerable variability and were interpreted as individual expressions of nepotism. The heritability of individual nepotism was zero. Variability of nepotism was unrelated to personality traits, but substantially related to sex, and parental and partner status. The authors discuss subjective closeness as 1 proximate cue to kinship, and suggest nepotistic adaptations as powerful mechanisms in social relationships.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 03/2003; 84(2):310-21. · 5.08 Impact Factor