Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals, caffeine and DEET in wastewater treatment plants of Being, China

POPs Research Centre, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084, China.
Water Research (Impact Factor: 5.32). 08/2009; 44(2):417-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2009.07.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The occurrence and removal of 13 pharmaceuticals and 2 consumer products, including antibiotic, antilipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anticonvulsant, stimulant, insect repellent and antipsychotic, were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Beijing, China. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Most of the target compounds were detected, with the concentrations of 4.4 ng L(-1)-6.6 microg L(-1) and 2.2-320 ng L(-1) in the influents and secondary effluents, respectively. These concentrations were consistent with their consumptions in China, and much lower than those reported in the USA and Europe. Most compounds were hardly removed in the primary treatment, while their removal rates ranging from -12% to 100% were achieved during the secondary treatment. In the tertiary treatment, different processes showed discrepant performances. The target compounds could not be eliminated by sand filtration, but the ozonation and microfiltration/reverse osmosis (MF/RO) processes employed in two WWTPs were very effective to remove them, showing their main contributions to the removal of such micro-pollutants in wastewater treatment.

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Available from: Jun Huang, Aug 24, 2015
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    • "This is mainly due to the increased consumption of drugs worldwide, demographic changes and observed medicinal development progress (Hughes et al., 2013). The potential threat to aquatic wildlife coming from the presence of drugs in the environment is amplified by topics still not fully explored such as the persistence of drugs in the environment, their ecotoxicity and bioaccumulation (Fent et al., 2006; Vanderford and Snyder, 2006; Kasprzyk-Hordern et al., 2008; Benotti et al., 2009; Sui et al., 2010; Yu et al., 2011; Salem et al., 2012; Nodler et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years cardiovascular diseases were the second most common cause of death worldwide. Therefore, the consumption of cardiovascular drugs is high, which might result in an increase of them in the environment. The major source of aquatic environmental contamination is still effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Unfortunately removal of cardiovascular active compounds and/or their metabolites in WWTP is still unsatisfactory. Among microbial and abiotic degradation of these compounds during wastewater processes, photolysis and photodegradation of cardiovascular drugs also play an important role. New formed compounds may be more toxic or retain the properties of parent compounds. Thus the main goal of this paper was to provide a detailed and comprehensive review of used analytical methods, coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, to determine the presence of cardiovascular compounds in surface waters as well as WTTPs effluents and influents. Exhaustive preparation for mass spectrometry detection and quantitation including samples pre-treatment, and the common problem of the matrix effect are thoroughly explored in this paper. Additionally, the article provides some hints in respect of recently noted problematic issue related to the availability of specific standards for the analysis of drug's metabolites. Furthermore, information concerning the metabolism of cardiovascular active compounds including differences in metabolism within enantiomers is described. This article also touches on the problems associated with environmental risk assessment due to the presence of cardiovasculars in the environment. The paper also tries to explain differences in concentrations among cardiovascular compounds between countries worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemosphere 07/2015; 138:642-656. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.07.056 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    • "The major sources of antibiotic residues in the environment include wastewater from hospitals, households, livestock farming, and pharmaceutical factories. Wastewater can contain extremely complex mixtures of various antibiotics and other drugs, such as cefalexin (CLX), chloramphenicol (CHL), carbamazepine (CAR), ibuprofen (IBU), and naproxen (NAP) (Sui et al., 2010; Krko sek et al., 2014). These kinds of pharmaceuticals can reach wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from different routes and are usually detected at levels ranging from ng L À1 up to mg L À1 not only in domestic and hospital effluents but also in effluents of pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities, which can present higher levels, reaching concentrations up to the mg L À1 range (Lin et al., 2009; Yang et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study characterizes the extracellular polymeric substances and bacterial community composition of aerobic granules exposed to cefalexin (CLX). The presence of CLX potentially decreases granular stabilities, resulting in a lowered granule diameter. Chemical oxygen demand and NH 4 + –N removal efficiencies were slightly decreased and the denitrification process was inhibited with CLX addition. Extracellular polymeric substance contents were significantly increased in aerobic granules exposed to CLX. The shifts of fluorescence intensities and peak locations in 3D-EEM fluorescence spectra indicated changes of EPS components. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed aerobic granules with CLX addition in synthetic wastewater had superior diversity of microbial species, and this was the reason that the level and components of EPS changed. The species richness for bacteria was increased from 341 to 352, which was revealed by Chao1. The Shannon index of diversity rose slightly from 3.59 to 3.73 with CLX addition. The abundance of Proteobacteria significantly decreased, while the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi underwent a highly significant increase in aerobic granules exposed to CLX.
    International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 05/2015; 102. DOI:10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.04.020 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    • "Environmental Science and Technology ranked the third in the category of Environmental Engineering with the highest impact factor of 5.257 and h-index of 60. Country/territory and institution Many pharmaceuticals, such as antibiotics, antacids, steroids , and antidepressants etc., have been detected in the surface and ground waters of the US (Kolpin et al. 2002; Long et al. 2013), Spain (Rodríguez et al. 2003; Carballa et al. 2005; Gros et al. 2007), Germany (Ternes 1998; Ternes and Hirsch 2000; Kunkel and Radke 2012), China (Peng et al. 2006; Sui et al. 2010; Yuan et al. 2013), Switzerland (McArdell et al. 2003), Canada (Miao et al. 2004; Lajeunesse et al. 2012), etc. Thus we investigated the internationality of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment research by analyzing the production of articles on pharmaceutical wastewater treatment per country. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmaceutical wastewater contains large amounts of high concentration refractory organic intermediates, which have got potential hazards to human health and the environment. It has attracted great attention from the governments, the public and the researchers. In this context, understanding current state of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment research can help guide future research. A bibliometric analysis based on the science citation index expanded from web of science (WoS) was carried out to assess the research pattern and tendencies of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment from 1994 to 2013. Study emphases herein included performance of publication covering annual outputs, mainstream journals, WoS categories, leading countries, institutions, research tendencies and hotspots. The results showed that the annual output of related scientific articles had increased steadily, with approximately 88 % of all articles on pharmaceutical wastewater treatment during 1994-2013 published since 2003. Water research, chemosphere and environmental science and technology were the three most common journals in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment research. The United States takes the dominant position in this field, followed by Spain and Germany. A summary of the most frequently used keywords obtained from words in paper title analysis, author keyword analysis and keywords plus analysis provided the clues to discover current research emphases. The mainstream research related to pharmaceutical wastewater was on wastewater treatment methods and the related contaminants. Adsorption, ozonation and photocatalysis were common treatment techniques and are getting popular. The commonly researched pharmaceutical wastewater contaminants were carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, clofibric acid, and triclosan, which have emerged as the frequently studied contaminants in recent years.
    Environmental Earth Sciences 05/2015; 73(9):4995-5005. DOI:10.1007/s12665-015-4183-3 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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