Article

Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals, caffeine and DEET in wastewater treatment plants of Beijing, China

POPs Research Centre, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084, China.
Water Research (Impact Factor: 5.32). 08/2009; 44(2):417-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2009.07.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The occurrence and removal of 13 pharmaceuticals and 2 consumer products, including antibiotic, antilipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anticonvulsant, stimulant, insect repellent and antipsychotic, were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Beijing, China. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Most of the target compounds were detected, with the concentrations of 4.4 ng L(-1)-6.6 microg L(-1) and 2.2-320 ng L(-1) in the influents and secondary effluents, respectively. These concentrations were consistent with their consumptions in China, and much lower than those reported in the USA and Europe. Most compounds were hardly removed in the primary treatment, while their removal rates ranging from -12% to 100% were achieved during the secondary treatment. In the tertiary treatment, different processes showed discrepant performances. The target compounds could not be eliminated by sand filtration, but the ozonation and microfiltration/reverse osmosis (MF/RO) processes employed in two WWTPs were very effective to remove them, showing their main contributions to the removal of such micro-pollutants in wastewater treatment.

Full-text

Available from: Jun Huang, Jun 04, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
282 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study characterizes the extracellular polymeric substances and bacterial community composition of aerobic granules exposed to cefalexin (CLX). The presence of CLX potentially decreases granular stabilities, resulting in a lowered granule diameter. Chemical oxygen demand and NH 4 + –N removal efficiencies were slightly decreased and the denitrification process was inhibited with CLX addition. Extracellular polymeric substance contents were significantly increased in aerobic granules exposed to CLX. The shifts of fluorescence intensities and peak locations in 3D-EEM fluorescence spectra indicated changes of EPS components. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed aerobic granules with CLX addition in synthetic wastewater had superior diversity of microbial species, and this was the reason that the level and components of EPS changed. The species richness for bacteria was increased from 341 to 352, which was revealed by Chao1. The Shannon index of diversity rose slightly from 3.59 to 3.73 with CLX addition. The abundance of Proteobacteria significantly decreased, while the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi underwent a highly significant increase in aerobic granules exposed to CLX.
    International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.04.020 · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The emergence of antibiotics in aquatic environment has led to an increasing concern about the potential environmental risks and the spread of antibacterial resistance among microorganisms. Electrochemical oxidation processes are promising technologies to treat low contents of toxic and bio-refractory pollutants in water. Anodic oxidation of berberine, the frequently detected antibiotic in surface waters, was carried out by using RuO2/Ti, IrO2/Ti, RuIrO2/Ti, and Pt/Ti electrodes. It showed that with Pt/Ti anode, the removal efficiency of berberine was significantly higher than that with the other electrodes. Moreover, all the four electrodes showed 3-5 times higher reaction rate constant in NaCl solution than in Na2SO4 solution. The addition of chloride salts increased the oxidation rate of berberines due to the formation of active chlorines. In the case of Pt/Ti anode and simulated berberine wastewater, the effects of applied anodic bias, initial pH, Cl− and berberine concentrations, and reaction time on the removal efficiency of berberines were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of applied bias of 2.0 V, initial pH of 5.0, and Cl− concentration of 0.1 mol/L, the removal efficiency was higher than 90.0 % after 1-h reaction when the berberine concentration was lower than 50 mg/L. The acute toxicity of the simulated berberine wastewater could be largely reduced under the optimum conditions. Ultraviolet-visible adsorption spectra and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra also confirmed that although berberines could not be fully mineralized after 1 h of electrochemical treatment, most of them were easily oxidized and decomposed by the electrolysis, thus forming some intermediate products with simple aromatic structures. Based on the results obtained, the electrochemical process with Pt/Ti electrode can be a feasible alternative as a post-treatment or treatment for berberine wastewater.
    Environmental earth sciences 05/2015; 73(9):4957-4966. DOI:10.1007/s12665-015-4323-9 · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The occurrence in municipal wastewaters of six pharmaceutical products, paracetamol, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, caffeine and carbamazepine, which belong to different therapeutic classes (analgesic drugs, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic and stimulant compounds), have been investigated. Influent and effluent water samples from two conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of the North of Spain were collected at different seasons and analyzed. Ranges of PPCPs concentrations were similar to levels reported in other studies worldwide. Influent concentrations ranges were 2.3-42 μg/L for ibuprofen and naproxen, 0.04-7.8 μg/L for caffeine and paracetamol, and 0.03-0.4 μg/L for carbamazepine and diclofenac. The highest concentrations were found for ibuprofen in the untreated municipal wastewaters. Effluent concentrations were always below 5.7 μg/L. Diclofenac and carbamazepine persisted in WWTP effluents, whereas paracetamol, ibuprofen, naproxen and caffeine showed removal efficiencies between 75% and 99%. Considering first-order kinetics for the biodegradation of these compounds, apparent kinetic constants were calculated and similar values were obtained for both WWTPs, although one of them resulted to be more sensitive to temperature changes.
    Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 03/2014; 2(1):495-502. DOI:10.1016/j.jece.2014.01.023