Cause-Specific Mortality and the Contribution of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in the First 3 Years after Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in an Urban African Cohort
ABSTRACT Although many studies have reported high early mortality among patients enrolled in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa-particularly among those individuals with advanced immunodeficiency-few studies have reported the most common causes of these early deaths.
We determined cause-specific mortality and the contribution of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a well-characterized patient cohort in Kampala, Uganda, over a 36-month period of ART.
In a cohort of patients who initiated antiretroviral therapy in Uganda, we observed a high early mortality rate among patients with advanced disease. The most common causes of death were tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis. The contribution of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome to mortality was limited.
We show a significant early mortality in our ART cohort in resource-limited settings that is driven by advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease and characterized by low CD4 cell counts. In our experience, the contribution of IRIS to this observed early mortality is limited.
SourceAvailable from: Sai Ko Ko Zaw[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background The outcomes from an antiretroviral treatment (ART) program within the public sector in Myanmar have not been reported. This study documents retention and the risk factors for attrition in a large ART public health program in Myanmar. Methods A retrospective analysis of a cohort of adult patients enrolled in the Integrated HIV Care (IHC) Program between June 2005 and October 2011 and followed up until April 2012 is presented. The primary outcome was attrition (death or loss-follow up); a total of 10,223 patients were included in the 5-year cumulative survival analysis. Overall 5,718 patients were analyzed for the risk factors for attrition using both logistic regression and flexible parametric survival models. Result The mean age was 36 years, 61% of patients were male, and the median follow up was 13.7 months. Overall 8,564 (84%) patients were retained in ART program: 750 (7%) were lost to follow-up and 909 (9%) died. During the 3 years follow-up, 1,542 attritions occurred over 17,524 person years at risk, giving an incidence density of 8.8% per year. The retention rates of participants at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months were 86, 82, 80, 77 and 74% respectively. In multivariate analysis, being male, having high WHO staging, a low CD4 count, being anaemic or having low BMI at baseline were independent risk factors for attrition; tuberculosis (TB) treatment at ART initiation, a prior ART course before program enrollment and literacy were predictors for retention in the program. Conclusion High retention rate of IHC program was documented within the public sector in Myanmar. Early diagnosis of HIV, nutritional support, proper investigation and treatment for patients with low CD4 counts and for those presenting with anaemia are crucial issues towards improvement of HIV program outcomes in resource-limited settings.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108615. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108615 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amphotericin B is the preferred treatment for cryptococcal meningitis, but it has cumulative severe side effects, including nephrotoxicity, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia. Amphotericin-induced severe hypokalemia may predispose the patient to cardiac arrhythmias and death, and there is very little data available regarding these toxicities in resource-limited settings. We hypothesized that standardized electrolyte management during amphotericin therapy is essential to minimize toxicity and optimize survival in sub-Saharan Africa. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected, antiretroviral therapy naive adults with cryptococcal meningitis were prospectively enrolled at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda in 3 sequential cohorts with amphotericin B deoxycholate induction treatment. Intravenous fluid use was intermittent in 2001-2002, and universal in 2006-2012. In 2001-2009, serum potassium (K(+)) was monitored on days 1, 7, and 14 of treatment with replacement (K(+), Mg(2+)) per clinician discretion. In 2011-2012, K(+) was measured on days 1, 5, and approximately every 48 hours thereafter with universal electrolyte (K(+), Mg(2+)) supplementation and standardized replacement. Clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared between fluid and electrolyte management strategies. With limited intravenous fluids, the 14-day survival was 49% in 2001-2002. With universal intravenous fluids, the 30-day survival improved to 62% in 2006-2010 (P = .003). In 2011-2012, with universal supplementation of fluids and electrolytes, 30-day cumulative survival improved to 78% (P = .021 vs 2006-2010 cohort). The cumulative incidence of severe hypokalemia (<2.5 mEq/L) decreased from 38% in 2010 to 8.5% in 2011-2012 with universal supplementation (P < .001). Improved survival was seen in a resource-limited setting with proactive fluid and electrolyte management (K(+), Mg(2+)), as part of comprehensive amphotericin-based cryptococcal therapy.07/2014; 1(2):ofu070-ofu070. DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofu070
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an aberrant inflammatory response occurring in a subset of TB-HIV co-infected patients initiating anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Here, we examined monocyte activation by prospectively quantitating pro-inflammatory plasma markers and monocyte subsets in TB-HIV co-infected patients from a South Indian cohort at baseline and following ART initiation at the time of IRIS, or at equivalent time points in non-IRIS controls. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers of innate and myeloid cell activation were increased in plasma of IRIS patients pre-ART and at the time of IRIS; this association was confirmed in a second cohort in South Africa. Increased expression of these markers correlated with elevated antigen load as measured by higher sputum culture grade and shorter duration of anti-TB therapy. Phenotypic analysis revealed the frequency of CD14++CD16- monocytes was an independent predictor of TB-IRIS, and was closely associated with plasma levels of CRP, TNF, IL-6 and tissue factor during IRIS. In addition, production of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes was higher in IRIS patients compared to controls pre-ART. These data point to a major role of mycobacterial antigen load and myeloid cell hyperactivation in the pathogenesis of TB-IRIS, and implicate monocytes and monocyte-derived cytokines as potential targets for TB-IRIS prevention or treatment.PLoS Pathogens 10/2014; 10:e1004433. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004433 · 8.06 Impact Factor