Perioperative peripheral nerve injuries: a retrospective study of 380,680 cases during a 10-year period at a single institution.
ABSTRACT Peripheral nerve injuries represent a notable source of anesthetic complications and can be debilitating. The objective of this study was to identify associations with peripheral nerve injury in a broad surgical population cared for in the last decade.
At a tertiary care university hospital, the quality assurance, closed claims, and institution-wide billing code databases were searched for peripheral nerve injuries over a 10-yr period. Each reported case was individually reviewed to determine whether a perioperative injury occurred, defined as a new sensory and/or motor deficit. The location and type of the injury were also identified. Nerve complications as a result of the surgical procedure itself were excluded, and an expert review panel assisted in the adjudication of unclear cases. Patient preoperative characteristics, anesthetic modality, and surgical specialty were evaluated for associations.
Of all patients undergoing 380,680 anesthetics during a 10-yr period, 185 patients were initially identified as having nerve injuries, and after review, 112 met our definition of a perioperative nerve injury (frequency = 0.03%). Hypertension, tobacco use, and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with perioperative peripheral nerve injuries. General and epidural anesthesia were associated with nerve injuries. Significant associations were also found with the following surgical specialties: Neurosurgery, cardiac surgery, general surgery, and orthopedic surgery.
To our knowledge, this is the largest number of consecutive patients ever reviewed for all types of perioperative peripheral nerve injuries. More importantly, this is the first study to identify associations of nerve injuries with hypertension, anesthetic modality, and surgical specialty.
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ABSTRACT: Positioning injuries in the perioperative period are one of the inherent risks of surgery, but particularly in robot-assisted urologic surgery, and can result in often unrecognized morbidity. Injuries such as upper or lower extremity peripheral neuropathies occur via neural mechanisms and injuries such as compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis, ischemic optic neuropathy, and acute arterial occlusion occur via vascular mechanisms. The risk of injury may be exacerbated by operative and patient-related risk factors. Patient-related risk factors include ASA class and BMI, while surgery-related risk factors include physical orientation of the patient and operative length. These injuries can be prevented or reduced by joint effort of the surgeon, anesthesiologist, and operating room staff.Current Urology Reports 04/2014; 15(4):398. DOI:10.1007/s11934-014-0398-1
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ABSTRACT: Positioning patients for spine surgery is pivotal for optimal operating conditions and operative-site exposure. During spine surgery, patients are placed in positions that are not physiologic and may lead to complications. Perioperative peripheral nerve injury (PPNI) and postoperative visual loss (POVL) are rare complications related to patient positioning during spine surgery that result in significant patient disability and functional loss. PPNI is usually due to stretch or compression of the peripheral nerve. PPNI may present as a brachial plexus injury or as an isolated injury of single nerve, most commonly the ulnar nerve. Understanding the etiology, mechanism and pattern of injury with each type of nerve injury is important for the prevention of PPNI. Intraoperative neuromonitoring has been used to detect peripheral nerve conduction abnormalities indicating peripheral nerve stress under general anesthesia and to guide modification of the upper extremity position to prevent PPNI. POVL usually results in permanent visual loss. Most cases are associated with prolonged spine procedures in the prone position under general anesthesia. The most common causes of POVL after spine surgery are ischemic optic neuropathy and central retinal artery occlusion. Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy is the most common cause of POVL after spine surgery. It is important for spine surgeons to be aware of POVL and to participate in safe, collaborative perioperative care of spine patients. Proper education of perioperative staff, combined with clear communication and collaboration while positioning patients in the operating room is the best and safest approach. The prevention of uncommon complications of spine surgery depends primarily on identifying high-risk patients, proper positioning and optimal intraoperative management of physiological parameters. Modification of risk factors extrinsic to the patient may help reduce the incidence of PPNI and POVL.09/2014; 5(4):425-43. DOI:10.5312/wjo.v5.i4.425