Physical Activity, Diet, and Risk of Alzheimer Disease

Taub Institute for Research in Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain and Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 W 168th St, New York, NY 10032, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 09/2009; 302(6):627-37. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2009.1144
Source: PubMed


Both higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet and more physical activity have been independently associated with lower Alzheimer disease (AD) risk but their combined association has not been investigated.
To investigate the combined association of diet and physical activity with AD risk.
Prospective cohort study of 2 cohorts comprising 1880 community-dwelling elders without dementia living in New York, New York, with both diet and physical activity information available. Standardized neurological and neuropsychological measures were administered approximately every 1.5 years from 1992 through 2006. Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet (scale of 0-9; trichotomized into low, middle, or high; and dichotomized into low or high) and physical activity (sum of weekly participation in various physical activities, weighted by the type of physical activity [light, moderate, vigorous]; trichotomized into no physical activity, some, or much; and dichotomized into low or high), separately and combined, were the main predictors in Cox models. Models were adjusted for cohort, age, sex, ethnicity, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, caloric intake, body mass index, smoking status, depression, leisure activities, a comorbidity index, and baseline Clinical Dementia Rating score.
Time to incident AD.
A total of 282 incident AD cases occurred during a mean (SD) of 5.4 (3.3) years of follow-up. When considered simultaneously, both Mediterranean-type diet adherence (compared with low diet score, hazard ratio [HR] for middle diet score was 0.98 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.72-1.33]; the HR for high diet score was 0.60 [95% CI, 0.42-0.87]; P = .008 for trend) and physical activity (compared with no physical activity, the HR for some physical activity was 0.75 [95% CI, 0.54-1.04]; the HR for much physical activity was 0.67 [95% CI, 0.47-0.95]; P = .03 for trend) were associated with lower AD risk. Compared with individuals neither adhering to the diet nor participating in physical activity (low diet score and no physical activity; absolute AD risk of 19%), those both adhering to the diet and participating in physical activity (high diet score and high physical activity) had a lower risk of AD (absolute risk, 12%; HR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.44-0.96]; P = .03 for trend).
In this study, both higher Mediterranean-type diet adherence and higher physical activity were independently associated with reduced risk for AD.

16 Reads
  • Source
    • "ciated with a lower risk of mortality from all causes and cardiovascular events ( Kodama et al . , 2009 ; Sui et al . , 2007 ) . Likewise , high levels of physical activity in older adults are associated with a more favorable profile of cardiovascular biomarkers ( Mora , Lee , Buring , & Ridker , 2006 ) and a lower risk for Alzheimer ' s disease ( Scarmeas et al . , 2009 ) and diabetes mellitus ( Weinstein et al . , 2004 ) . Data from the Cardiovascular Health Study ( Hirsch et al . , 2010"
  • Source
    • "Furthermore, by generation of a transgenic mouse model expressing a mutant SOD1G93A selectively in skeletal muscle, it has been demonstrated that skeletal muscle is a primary target of SOD1G93A-mediated toxicity and that oxidative stress triggers muscle atrophy [10]. A higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet has been associated with lower Alzheimer disease risk and may be protective against stroke and other neurological disorders [11] [12] [13]. The Mediterranean diet is characterized by high-fat (mainly from olive oil) complex carbohydrates in the form of cereals and legumes, high fiber in the form of fruit and vegetables and the limited consumption of animal proteins, representing a design tested by populations in the Mediterranean Basin for more than 2000 years. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with mutations in antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Albeit there is no treatment for this disease, new insights related to an exacerbated lipid metabolism have been reported. In connection with the hypermetabolic lipid status, the hypothesis whether nature of dietary fat might delay the progression of the disease was tested by using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses the human SOD1G93A variant. For this purpose, SOD1G93A mice were assigned randomly to one of the following three experimental groups: 1) a standard chow diet (control, n = 21), 2) a chow diet enriched with 20% (w/w) extra virgin olive oil (EVOO, n = 22), and 3) a chow diet containing 20% palm oil (palm, n = 20). They received the diets for 8 weeks and the progression of the disease was assessed. On the standard chow diet, average plasma cholesterol levels were lower than those mice receiving the high fat diets. Mice fed an EVOO diet showed a significant higher survival and better motor performance than control mice. EVOO group mice survived longer, showed better motor performance and larger muscle fiber area than animals receiving palm. Moreover, the EVOO-enriched diet improved the muscle status as shown by expression of myogenic factors (Myod1 and Myog) and autophagy markers (LC3 and Beclin1), as well as diminished ER stress through decreasing Atf6 and Grp78. Our results demonstrate that EVOO may be effective in increasing survival rate, improving motor coordination together with a potential amelioration of ER stress, autophagy and muscle damage.
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 08/2014; 25(8). DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.04.005 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • ") [74]. The potent anti-inflammatory properties of oleocanthal, a component of extra virgin olive oil that was identified through its similar throat irritant properties, may offer a partial explanation for the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in AD and have been shown to prevent aggregation of tau protein and reduced b-amyloid accumulation in mice [75] [76]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lifestyle and health-related factors are critical components of the risk for cognitive aging among veterans. Because dementia has a prolonged prodromal phase, understanding effects across the life course could help focus the timing and duration of prevention targets. This perspective may be especially relevant for veterans and health behaviors. Military service may promote development and maintenance of healthy lifestyle behaviors, but the period directly after active duty has ended could be an important transition stage and opportunity to address some important risk factors. Targeting multiple pathways in one intervention may maximize efficiency and benefits for veterans. A recent review of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease estimated that a 25% reduction of a combination of seven modifiable risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, depression, physical inactivity, smoking, and education/cognitive inactivity could prevent up to 3 million cases worldwide and 492,000 cases in the United States. Lifestyle interventions to address cardiovascular health in veterans may serve as useful models with both physical and cognitive activity components, dietary intervention, and vascular risk factor management. Although the evidence is accumulating for lifestyle and health-related risk factors as well as military risk factors, more studies are needed to characterize these factors in veterans and to examine the potential interactions between them.
    Alzheimer's and Dementia 06/2014; 10(3):S111–S121. DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.04.010 · 12.41 Impact Factor
Show more


16 Reads
Available from