Article

Pediatric post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after cardiac transplantation.

Department of Pediatrics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
International journal of hematology (Impact Factor: 1.17). 09/2009; 90(2):127-36. DOI: 10.1007/s12185-009-0399-x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well recognized and potentially fatal complication after pediatric cardiac transplantation. PTLD encompasses a wide spectrum, ranging from benign hyperplasia to more aggressive lymphoma. Most cases are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related B-cell tumors resulting from impaired immunity due to immunosuppressive therapy. Pediatric recipients, often seronegative for EBV at transplantation, have a greater risk for PTLD than adults. The clinical presentation of PTLD varies from isolated lymphadenopathy to systemic disease; common sites involved are gastrointestinal tract, lung or airway, and cervical lesions. Timely and accurate diagnosis based on histological examination of biopsy tissue is essential for early intervention. Immunostaining for EBV and evaluation for clonality are needed. For prophylaxis when EBV viral loads are increasing or for initial treatment of early lesions or polymorphic PTLD, a reduction in immunosuppressive treatment is a key component of therapy, but caution is needed for possible rebound allograft rejection. Chemotherapy is indicated for patients with poor response to reduced immunosuppression and for highly aggressive monomorphic PTLD. The use of rituximab in combination with chemotherapy is effective. For the time being, avoiding excessive immunosuppression is the most effective strategy for reducing the incidence of PTLD. Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) minimization with proliferation signal inhibitors (PSIs) or conversion from a CNI to a PSI might be useful for preventing both development of PTLD and allograft rejection.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
64 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a heterogeneous group of potentially life-threatening complications that occur after solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. Risk factors for acquiring PTLD are type of organ transplanted, age, intensity of immunosuppression, viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and time after transplantation. Due to a dearth of well designed prospective trials, treatment for PTLD is often empirical, with reduction in immunosuppression accepted as the first step. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen of immature B cells, is often used as monotherapy after reduction in immunosuppression, although this is associated with a high risk of relapse if patients have at least one of the following risk factors: age greater than 60 years, elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Score between 2 and 4. For such patients, rituximab should be considered in combination with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone), particularly if high-grade PTLD is present. Although widely prescribed, the use of ganciclovir for PTLD remains controversial as EBV-transformed cells lack the thymidine kinase necessary for ganciclovir activation. Newer antivirals that combine ganciclovir with activators of cellular thymidine kinase have shown promising results in preclinical studies. In the absence of controlled trials, surgery may be indicated for localized disease and radiotherapy for patients with impending spinal cord compression or disease localized to the central nervous system or orbit. Future interventions may include adoptive immunotherapy, intravenous immunoglobulin, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies to interleukin-6 and galectin-1, and even EBV vaccination. Although several trials are in progress, it is necessary to wait for the long-term outcome of these studies on risk of PTLD relapse.
    Drugs 08/2012; 72(12):1631-43. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Management of aggressive, usually late-occurring, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs), a life-threatening complication after solid organ transplants, remains controversial. Four children affected by aggressive CD20+ PTLDs received a chemo-immunotherapy regimen for remission induction based on fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab, associated with a rapid discontinuation of immunosuppression (IS). Subsequent consolidation chemotherapy consisted of Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster-modified blocks. All patients achieved a complete remission, which persisted for 25, 68+, 80+, and 103+ months after diagnosis. Therapy was well tolerated. No patients developed allograft rejection during PTLD treatment. Our experience suggests that this chemo-immunotherapeutic approach may be an effective treatment strategy while allowing for a concomitant discontinuation of IS.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 02/2011; 57(2):324-8. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BKV is known to cause allograft failure in kidney transplant recipients. It has been recently recognized to cause native kidney nephropathy in non-kidney transplant recipients. This is a case report BKVN in a 15-yr-old HTx recipient who had PTLD and a review of pediatric cases in the literature. The patient was diagnosed with BKVN +189 months after transplantation and died thirty days after diagnosis of BKVN. We identified five other cases of BKVN in pediatric non-kidney solid organ transplantation, of which all were HTx recipients. Overall, outcome was poor and BKV clearance was not achieved with reduction of immunosuppression and with current therapies. We strongly recommend that pediatric HTx recipients be tested for BKV infection if there is evidence of kidney dysfunction. We also recommend that they have an annual screening for BKV viruria and viremia with the assessment of kidney function.
    Pediatric Transplantation 12/2012; · 1.50 Impact Factor