Pharmacogenetic pathway analysis for determination of sunitinib-induced toxicity.
ABSTRACT To identify genetic markers in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways of sunitinib that predispose for development of toxicities: thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, mucosal inflammation, hand-foot syndrome, and any toxicity according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria higher than grade 2.
A multicenter pharmacogenetic association study was performed in 219 patients treated with single-agent sunitinib. A total of 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 12 candidate genes, together with several nongenetic variants, were analyzed for a possible association with toxicity. In addition, genetic haplotypes were developed and related to toxicity.
The risk for leukopenia was increased when the G allele in CYP1A1 2455A/G (odds ratio [OR], 6.24; P = .029) or the T allele in FLT3 738T/C (OR, 2.8; P = .008) were present or CAG in the NR1I3 (5719C/T, 7738A/C, 7837T/G) haplotype (OR, 1.74; P = .041) was absent. Any toxicity higher than grade 2 prevalence was increased when the T allele of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 1191C/T (OR, 2.39; P = .046) or a copy of TT in the ABCG2 (-15622C/T, 1143C/T) haplotype (OR, 2.63; P = .016) were present. The risk for mucosal inflammation was increased in the presence of the G allele in CYP1A1 2455A/G (OR, 4.03; P = .021) and the prevalence of hand-foot syndrome was increased when a copy of TTT in the ABCB1 (3435C/T, 1236C/T, 2677G/T) haplotype (OR, 2.56; P = .035) was present.
This exploratory study suggests that polymorphisms in specific genes encoding for metabolizing enzymes, efflux transporters, and drug targets are associated with sunitinib-related toxicities. A better understanding of genetic and nongenetic determinants of sunitinib toxicity should help to optimize drug treatment in individual patients.
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ABSTRACT: Tyrosine kinases are important cellular signaling proteins that have a variety of biological activities including cell proliferation and migration. Multiple kinases are involved in angiogenesis, including receptor tyrosine kinases such as the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. Inhibition of angiogenic tyrosine kinases has been developed as a systemic treatment strategy for cancer. Three anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), sunitinib, sorafenib and pazopanib, with differential binding capacities to angiogenic kinases were recently approved for treatment of patients with advanced cancer (renal cell cancer, gastro-intestinal stromal tumors, and hepatocellular cancer). Many other anti-angiogenic TKIs are being studied in phase I-III clinical trials. In addition to their beneficial anti-tumor activity, clinical resistance and toxicities have also been observed with these agents. In this manuscript, we will give an overview of the design and development of anti-angiogenic TKIs. We describe their molecular structure and classification, their mechanism of action, and their inhibitory activity against specific kinase signaling pathways. In addition, we provide insight into what extent selective targeting of angiogenic kinases by TKIs may contribute to the clinically observed anti-tumor activity, resistance, and toxicity. We feel that it is of crucial importance to increase our understanding of the clinical mechanism of action of anti-angiogenic TKIs in order to further optimize their clinical efficacy.Angiogenesis 12/2009; 13(1):1-14. · 6.06 Impact Factor