Bicaudal C, a novel regulator of Dvl signaling abutting RNA-processing bodies, controls cilia orientation and leftward flow.

Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 19, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Development (Impact Factor: 6.27). 10/2009; 136(17):3019-30. DOI: 10.1242/dev.038174
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Polycystic diseases and left-right (LR) axis malformations are frequently linked to cilia defects. Renal cysts also arise in mice and frogs lacking Bicaudal C (BicC), a conserved RNA-binding protein containing K-homology (KH) domains and a sterile alpha motif (SAM). However, a role for BicC in cilia function has not been demonstrated. Here, we report that targeted inactivation of BicC randomizes left-right (LR) asymmetry by disrupting the planar alignment of motile cilia required for cilia-driven fluid flow. Furthermore, depending on its SAM domain, BicC can uncouple Dvl2 signaling from the canonical Wnt pathway, which has been implicated in antagonizing planar cell polarity (PCP). The SAM domain concentrates BicC in cytoplasmic structures harboring RNA-processing bodies (P-bodies) and Dvl2. These results suggest a model whereby BicC links the orientation of cilia with PCP, possibly by regulating RNA silencing in P-bodies.

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    ABSTRACT: Bilateral symmetry during vertebrate development is broken at the left-right organizer (LRO) by ciliary motility and the resultant directional flow of extracellular fluid. However, how ciliary motility is perceived and transduced into asymmetrical intracellular signaling at the LRO remains controversial. Previous work has indicated that sensory cilia and polycystin-2 (Pkd2), a cation channel, are required for sensing ciliary motility, yet their function and the molecular mechanism linking both to left-right signaling cascades are unknown. Here we report novel intraciliary calcium oscillations (ICOs) at the LRO that connect ciliary sensation of ciliary motility to downstream left-right signaling. Utilizing cilia-targeted genetically encoded calcium indicators in live zebrafish embryos, we show that ICOs depend on Pkd2 and are left-biased at the LRO in response to ciliary motility. Asymmetric ICOs occur with onset of LRO ciliary motility, thus representing the earliest known LR asymmetric molecular signal. Suppression of ICOs using a cilia-targeted calcium sink reveals that they are essential for LR development. These findings demonstrate that intraciliary calcium initiates LR development and identify cilia as a functional ion signaling compartment connecting ciliary motility and flow to molecular LR signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Heterotaxy (also known as situs ambiguous) and situs inversus totalis describe disorders of laterality in which internal organs do not display their typical pattern of asymmetry. First described around 1600 by Girolamo Fabrizio, numerous case reports about laterality disorders in humans were published without any idea about the underlying cause. Then, in 1976, immotile cilia were described as the cause of a human syndrome that was previously clinically described, both in 1904 by AK Siewert and in 1933 by Manes Kartagener, as an association of situs inversus with chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis, now commonly known as Kartagener's syndrome. Despite intense research, the underlying defect of laterality disorders remained unclear. Nearly 20 years later in 1995, Björn Afzelius discussed five hypotheses to explain the connection between ciliary defects and loss of laterality control in a paper published in the International Journal of Developmental Biology asking: 'Situs inversus and ciliary abnormalities: What is the connection?'. Here, nearly 20 research years later, we revisit some of the key findings that led to the current knowledge about the connection between situs inversus and ciliary abnormalities.
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    ABSTRACT: In human, mutations in bicaudal C1 (BICC1), an RNA binding protein, have been identified in patients with kidney dysplasia. Deletion of Bicc1 in mouse leads to left-right asymmetry randomization and renal cysts. Here, we show that BICC1 is also expressed in both the pancreatic progenitor cells that line the ducts during development, and in the ducts after birth, but not in differentiated endocrine or acinar cells. Genetic inactivation of Bicc1 leads to ductal cell over-proliferation and cyst formation. Transcriptome comparison between WT and Bicc1 KO pancreata, before the phenotype onset, reveals that PKD2 functions downstream of BICC1 in preventing cyst formation in the pancreas. Moreover, the analysis highlights immune cell infiltration and stromal reaction developing early in the pancreas of Bicc1 knockout mice. In addition to these functions in duct morphogenesis, BICC1 regulates NEUROG3(+) endocrine progenitor production. Its deletion leads to a late but sustained endocrine progenitor decrease, resulting in a 50% reduction of endocrine cells. We show that BICC1 functions downstream of ONECUT1 in the pathway controlling both NEUROG3(+) endocrine cell production and ductal morphogenesis, and suggest a new candidate gene for syndromes associating kidney dysplasia with pancreatic disorders, including diabetes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


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Jun 4, 2014

Philipp Vick