Renal artery revascularization improves heart failure control in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.
ABSTRACT Renal artery stenosis (RAS) impacts the pathogenesis and control of heart failure (HF) and may further contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in HF patients. However, the long-term effects of renal artery revascularization on cardiovascular outcomes in HF patients are not well studied.
The prevalence of HF and its effects on all-cause mortality were studied in 163 consecutive patients with systemic hypertension and chronic kidney disease (serum creatinine >2 mg/dL) who underwent percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) with stenting for atherosclerotic RAS. In addition, in 100 patients with RAS and coexistent HF, we compared the impact of medical treatment (n = 50) versus PTRA (n = 50) on clinical outcomes.
HF (predominantly normal ejection fraction) was present in 50/163 (31%) patients with systemic hypertension and chronic kidney disease (serum creatinine >2 mg/ dL) undergoing PTRA for RAS and represented the major predictor of all-cause mortality in these patients. When compared with sex-matched RAS and HF patients treated medically, PTRA with stenting was associated with a significant decrease in the New York Heart Association Functional Class (1.9 +/- 0.8 versus 2.6 +/- 1.0, P < 0.04) and a 5-fold reduction in the number of hospitalizations. However, renal artery revascularization did not impact mortality.
HF was present in one-third of patients with renal dysfunction and atherosclerotic RAS who were referred for PTRA. The presence of HF was associated with a significantly increased risk of death after PTRA with stenting. Renal artery revascularization resulted in improved HF control and a reduction in HF hospitalizations.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence, prognostic import, and impact of renal insufficiency on the benefits of ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers in community-dwelling patients with heart failure are uncertain. We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of 754 patients with heart failure who had ejection fraction, serum creatinine, and weight measured at baseline. Median age was 69 years, and 43% had an ejection fraction > or =35%. By the Cockcroft-Gault equation, 118 patients (16%) had creatinine clearances < or =30 mL/min and 301 (40%) had creatinine clearances between 30 and 59 mL/min. During follow-up (median 926 days), 385 patients (37%) died. Even after adjustment for all other prognostic factors, survival was significantly associated with renal function (P=0.002) in patients with either systolic or diastolic dysfunction; patients exhibited a 1% increase in mortality for each 1-mL/min decrease in creatinine clearance. The associations with 1-year mortality reductions were similar for ACE inhibitors (OR 0.46 [95% CI 0.26 to 0.82] versus OR 0.28 [95% CI 0.11 to 0.70]) and beta-blockers (OR 0.40 [95% CI 0.23 to 0.70] versus OR 0.41 [95% CI 0.19 to 0.85]) in patients with creatinine clearances <60 mL/min versus > or =60 mL/min, although these drugs were used less frequently in patients with renal insufficiency. Renal insufficiency is more prevalent in patients with heart failure than previously reported and is an independent prognostic factor in diastolic and systolic dysfunction. ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers were associated with similar reductions in mortality in patients with and without renal insufficiency.Circulation 04/2004; 109(8):1004-9. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is a problem with no consensus on diagnosis or therapy. The consequences of renal ischemia are neuroendocrine activation, hypertension, and renal insufficiency that can potentially result in acceleration of atherosclerosis, further renal dysfunction, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and death. Whether revascularization improves clinical outcomes when compared with optimum medical therapy is unknown. CORAL is a randomized clinical trial contrasting optimum medical therapy alone to stenting with optimum medical therapy on a composite cardiovascular and renal end point: cardiovascular or renal death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for congestive heart failure, stroke, doubling of serum creatinine, and need for renal replacement therapy. The secondary end points evaluate the effectiveness of revascularization in important subgroups of patients and with respect to all-cause mortality, kidney function, renal artery patency, microvascular renal function, and blood pressure control. We will also correlate stenosis severity with longitudinal renal function and determine the value of stenting from the perspectives of quality of life and cost-effectiveness. The primary entry criteria are (1) an atherosclerotic renal stenosis of > or = 60% with a 20 mm Hg systolic pressure gradient or > or = 80% with no gradient necessary and (2) systolic hypertension of > or = 155 mm Hg on > or = 2 antihypertensive medications. Randomization will occur in 1080 subjects. The study has 90% power to detect a 28% reduction in primary end point hazard rate. CORAL represents a unique opportunity to determine the incremental value of stent revascularization, in addition to optimal medical therapy, for the treatment of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.American heart journal 08/2006; 152(1):59-66. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- The Lancet 07/1993; 341(8859):1521-2. · 39.06 Impact Factor