Definition of the residues required for the interaction between glycine-extended gastrin and transferrin in vitro.

Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Victoria, Australia.
FEBS Journal (Impact Factor: 3.99). 08/2009; 276(17):4866-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2009.07186.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Transferrin is the main iron transport protein found in the circulation, and the level of transferrin saturation in the blood is an important indicator of iron status. The peptides amidated gastrin(17) (Gamide) and glycine-extended gastrin(17) (Ggly) are well known for their roles in controlling acid secretion and as growth factors in the gastrointestinal tract. Several lines of evidence, including the facts that transferrin binds gastrin, that gastrins bind ferric ions, and that the level of expression of gastrins positively correlates with transferrin saturation, suggest the possible involvement of the transferrin-gastrin interaction in iron homeostasis. In the present work, the interaction between gastrins and transferrin has been characterized by surface plasmon resonance and covalent crosslinking. First, an interaction between iron-free apo-transferrin and Gamide or Ggly was observed. The fact that no interaction was observed in the presence of the chelator EDTA suggested that the gastrin-ferric ion complex was the interacting species. Moreover, removal of ferric ions with EDTA reduced the stability of the complex between apo-transferrin and gastrins, and no interaction was observed between Gamide or Ggly and diferric transferrin. Second, some or all of glutamates at positions 8-10 of the Ggly molecule, together with the C-terminal domain, were necessary for the interaction with apo-transferrin. Third, monoferric transferrin mutants incapable of binding iron in either the N-terminal or C-terminal lobe still bound Ggly. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that gastrin peptides bind to nonligand residues within the open cleft in each lobe of transferrin and are involved in iron loading of transferrin in vivo.

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    ABSTRACT: Gastrins are peptide hormones important for gastric acid secretion and growth of the gastrointestinal mucosa. We have previously demonstrated that ferric ions bind to gastrins, that the gastrin-ferric ion complex interacts with the iron transport protein transferrin in vitro, and that circulating gastrin concentrations positively correlate with transferrin saturation in vivo. Here we report the effect of long-term dietary iron modification on gastrin-deficient (Gas(-/-)) and hypergastrinemic cholecystokinin receptor 2-deficient (Cck2r(-/-)) mice, both of which have reduced basal gastric acid secretion. Iron homeostasis in both strains appeared normal unless the animals were challenged by iron deficiency. When fed an iron-deficient diet, Gas(-/-) mice, but not Cck2r(-/-) mice, developed severe anemia. In iron-deficient Gas(-/-) mice, massive splenomegaly was also apparent with an increased number of splenic megakaryocytes accompanied by thrombocytosis. The expression of the mRNA encoding the iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin, Hamp, was down-regulated in both Cck2r(-/-) and Gas(-/-) mice on a low-iron diet, but, interestingly, the reduction was greater in Cck2r(-/-) mice and smaller in Gas(-/-) mice than in the corresponding wild-type strains. These data suggest that gastrins play an important direct role, unrelated to their ability to stimulate acid secretion, in hematopoiesis under conditions of iron deficiency.
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