A systematic review assessing soft tissue augmentation techniques

Clinic for Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics and Dental Material Science, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Clinical Oral Implants Research (Impact Factor: 3.12). 10/2009; 20 Suppl 4:146-65. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01784.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of the present review was to systematically assess the dental literature in terms of soft tissue grafting techniques. The focused question was: is one method superior over others for augmentation and stability of the augmented soft tissue in terms of increasing the width of keratinized tissue (part 1) and gain in soft tissue volume (part 2).
A Medline search was performed for human studies focusing on augmentation of keratinized tissue and/or soft tissue volume, and complemented by additional hand searching. Relevant studies were identified and statistical results were reported for meta-analyses including the test minus control weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals, the I-squared statistic for tests of heterogeneity, and the number of significant studies.
Twenty-five (part 1) and three (part 2) studies met the inclusion criteria; 14 studies (part 1) were eligible for comparison using meta-analyses. An apically positioned flap/vestibuloplasty (APF/V) procedure resulted in a statistically significantly greater gain in keratinized tissue than untreated controls. APF/V plus autogenous tissue revealed statistically significantly more attached gingiva compared with untreated controls and a borderline statistical significance compared with APF/V plus allogenic tissue. Statistically significantly more shrinkage was observed for the APF/V plus allogenic graft compared with the APF/V plus autogenous tissue. Patient-centered outcomes did not reveal any of the treatment methods to be superior regarding postoperative complications. The three studies reporting on soft tissue volume augmentation could not be compared due to lack of homogeneity. The use of subepithelial connective tissue grafts (SCTGs) resulted in statistically significantly more soft tissue volume gain compared with free gingival grafts (FGGs).
APF/V is a successful treatment concept to increase the width of keratinized tissue or attached gingiva around teeth. The addition of autogenous tissue statistically significantly increases the width of attached gingiva. For soft tissue volume augmentation, only limited data are available favoring SCTGs over FGG.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present case report is to evaluate the adjunctive use of a connective tissue graft to overcome soft tissue defects following excision of a gingival fibrolipoma in the aesthetic region. Connective tissue graft has been well documented for treating defects of esthetic concern. However, the literature does not contain many reports on the esthetic clinical outcome following the use of connective tissue graft secondary to excision of soft tissue tumours. A 28-year-old male patient reported with a complaint of a recurrent growth in relation to his lower front tooth region. The lesion which was provisionally diagnosed as fibroma was treated with a complete surgical excision, following which a modified coronally advanced flap and connective tissue graft was adopted to overcome the soft tissue defect. The excised growth was diagnosed histologically as fibrolipoma. One year follow up showed no recurrence of the lesion and good esthetics.The adjunctive use of the connective tissue graft and modified coronally advanced flap predictably yields optimal soft tissue fill and excellent esthetics. Hence, routine use of this procedure may be recommended for surgical excision of soft tissue growths in esthetically sensitive areas.
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    ABSTRACT: Gingival augmentation procedures around natural teeth and dental implants are performed to facilitate plaque control, to improve patient comfort, to prevent future recession, and in conjunction with restorative, orthodontic, or prosthetic dentistry. The aim of this study is to answer the most common questions related to this treatment modality based on the most relevant and current knowledge in the field. Two reviewers worked to answer the five most common and clinically relevant questions with supporting literature to understand the role of gingiva around teeth. 1) What circumstances require an increased zone of keratinized tissue (KT), or is KT important? 2) What is the ideal thickness of an autogenous gingival graft? Is a thick autogenous gingival graft more effective than a thin autogenous gingival graft? 3) What are the alternatives to autogenous gingival grafting to increase the zone of attached gingiva? 4) Does orthodontic intervention affect soft tissue health and dimensions? 5) What is the patient-reported patient outcome for minimal KT compared with that for an enhanced zone of KT? An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, the Cochrane Oral Health Group Specialized Trials Registry (the Cochrane Library), and the most respected journals in the field. Although gingival augmentation procedures were first introduced in 1960s, there have not been in-depth comparative studies examining the five questions that have been proposed by the authors. Lack of relevant systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on this topic do not allow authors to answer those questions with a strong level of evidence. However, the following can be recommended after reviewing case reports and case series on these topics. 1) There is enough clinical evidence to support maintaining an adequate band of gingiva for intracrevicular margin restoration. 2) Thick grafts do not appear to result in better clinical outcomes than thin grafts. Thick grafts are likely to result in more primary contraction, whereas thin grafts tend to be prone to secondary contraction. 3) Viable alternative treatment modalities are currently available that are capable of providing KT augmentation without the need for palatal donor tissue. 4) Appropriately applied orthodontic forces do not cause permanent damage to a healthy periodontium. The probability of recession during tooth movement in thin biotype is high to justify gingival augmentation when the dimension of gingiva is inadequate. In addition, cases in which there will be a facial tooth movement outside of the alveolar process need to be considered for a gingival augmentation procedure. 5) Although the articles that have been published on this topic did not consider patient-reported outcomes and esthetics as part of the overall treatment success assessment, patients who have received alternative treatment modalities that did not depend on palatal tissue harvesting appear to have reported more satisfaction and less discomfort after treatment. Autogenous gingival grafts are still considered to be the "gold standard" procedure with unmatched success rates and clinical success when gingival augmentation procedures are required. However, tissue-engineered materials may offer viable options to palatal tissue harvesting for gingival augmentation. KT augmentation may prevent the development and progression of gingival recession, especially when restorative margins may interact with the periodontium and/or orthodontic treatment is indicated. Patient-reported outcomes should be considered for future studies on this topic. Additional RCTs and systematic reviews are needed to support these conclusions.
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    The Open Dentistry Journal 11/2014; 8:207-212. DOI:10.2174/1874210601408010207

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