Treat early or wait and monitor? A qualitative analysis of provider hepatitis C virus treatment decision-making in the context of HIV coinfection.

RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407, USA.
AIDS patient care and STDs (Impact Factor: 2.68). 09/2009; 23(9):715-25. DOI: 10.1089/apc.2009.0049
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Liver disease is a leading cause of death among patients with HIV coinfected with hepatitis C (HCV); yet, studies show that less than 10% receive HCV treatment, in part because of limited treatment response, high treatment toxicity, and psychosocial barriers to treatment readiness. Using a process model framework, we sought to explore the factors and processes by which providers make HCV treatment decisions for HIV-coinfected patients. We conducted 22 semistructured interviews with primary care providers and support staff at three HIV clinics in Los Angeles, California, in which rates of HCV treatment uptake varied from 10% to 38%. Providers agreed that stable HIV disease, favorable genotype, and significant signs of liver disease progression are all signs of need for treatment. However, two divergent treatment approaches emerged for genotype 1 and 4 patients with minimal disease, and in definitions of patient readiness. Providers with lower treatment rates preferred to delay treatment in hopes of better future treatment options, and were more conservative in requiring complete mental health screens and treatment and abstinence from substance use. Conversely, providers with higher treatment rates viewed all patients as needing treatment as soon as possible, and defined readiness more leniently, with some willing to treat even in the context of untreated depression and drug use, so long as ability to adhere well was demonstrated. Regardless of whether an aggressive or cautious approach to treatment is used, development of effective programs for promoting patient treatment readiness is critical to ensuring greater treatment uptake.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract This review synthesized the literature for barriers to HCV antiviral treatment in persons with HIV/HCV co-infection. Searches of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science were conducted to identify relevant articles. Articles were excluded based on the following criteria: study conducted outside of the United States, not original research, pediatric study population, experimental study design, non-HIV or non-HCV study population, and article published in a language other than English. Sixteen studies met criteria and varied widely in terms of study setting and design. Hepatic decompensation was the most commonly documented absolute/nonmodifiable medical barrier. Substance use was widely reported as a relative/modifiable medical barrier. Patient-level barriers included nonadherence to medical care, refusal of therapy, and social circumstances. Provider-level barriers included provider inexperience with antiviral treatment and/or reluctance of providers to refer patients for treatment. There are many ongoing challenges that are unique to managing this patient population effectively. Documenting and evaluating these obstacles are critical steps to managing and caring for these individuals in the future. In order to improve uptake of HCV therapy in persons with HIV/HCV co-infection, it is essential that barriers, both new and ongoing, are addressed, otherwise, treatment is of little benefit.
    AIDS patient care and STDs 04/2014; DOI:10.1089/apc.2014.0033 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic potential of telaprevir (TPV)/boceprevir (BOC)-based triple-therapy in a complete cohort of HIV/chronic hepatitis C co-infected patients (HIV/HCV). Moreover, a case series of four HIV/HCV genotype (HCV-GT)1 patients with rapid virologic response (RVR), who received only 28 weeks of BOC-based triple-therapy (BOCW28), was reported. 290/440 HIV-positive patients with positive HCV serology had at least one visit during the past 2 years, 142/290 had target detectable HCV-RNA with 64% (82/142) carrying HCV-GT1. While 18 HIV/HCV-GT1 displayed contraindications, 45% (64/142) of HIV/HCV were eligible for triple-therapy. Insufficiently controlled HIV-infection despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) (HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL: 73% vs. 22%; p<0.001) and liver cirrhosis (31% vs. 8%; p=0.025) were overrepresented among patients with contraindications for triple-therapy. Low treatment uptake rates (39% (25/64)) during the first 2 years of triple-therapy availability suggest that its benefit in HIV/HCV co-infected patients might fall short of expectations. Modification of cART or TPV dose adjustment would have been necessary in 61% and 84% of HIV/HCV-GT1 on cART eligible for triple-therapy using TPV and BOC, respectively, suggesting that drug-drug interactions with cART complicate management in the majority of patients. All four BOCW28 patients achieved a sustained virologic response. Prospective studies are necessary to validate our observations on the shortening of treatment duration in HIV/HCV-GT1 with RVR.
    AIDS patient care and STDs 05/2014; 28(5):221-7. DOI:10.1089/apc.2013.0359 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few studies have explored how utilization of outpatient services differ for HIV/HCV coinfected patients compared to HIV or HCV monoinfected patients. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare annual outpatient clinic visit rates between coinfected and monoinfected patients, (2) to compare utilization of HIV and HCV therapies between coinfected and monoinfected patients, and (3) to identify factors associated with therapy utilization. Data were from the 2005-2010 U.S. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys. Clinic visits with a primary or secondary ICD-9-CM codes for HIV or HCV were included. Coinfection included visits with codes for both HIV and HCV. Monoinfection only included codes for HIV or HCV, exclusively. Patients <15 years of age at time of visit were excluded. Predictors of HIV and HCV therapy were determined by logistic regressions. Visits were computed using survey weights. 3,021 visits (11,352,000 weighted visits) met study criteria for patients with HIV/HCV (8%), HIV (70%), or HCV (22%). The HCV subgroup was older in age and had the highest proportion of females and whites as compared to the HIV/HCV and HIV subgroups. Comorbidities varied significantly across the three subgroups (HIV/HCV, HIV, HCV): current tobacco use (40%, 27%, 30%), depression (32%, 23%, 24%), diabetes (9%, 10%, 17%), and chronic renal failure (<1%, 3%, 5%), (p < 0.001 for all variables). Annual visit rates were highest in those with HIV, followed by HIV/HCV, but consistently lower in those with HCV. HIV therapy utilization increased for both HIV/HCV and HIV subgroups. HCV therapy utilization remained low for both HIV/HCV and HCV subgroups for all years. Coinfection was an independent predictor of HIV therapy, but not of HCV therapy. There is a critical need for system-level interventions that reduce barriers to outpatient care and improve uptake of HCV therapy for patients with HIV/HCV coinfection.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 04/2014; 14(1):217. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-217 · 2.56 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014