[TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and gastric cancer risk: a case-control study in individuals from the central-western region of Venezuela].
ABSTRACT Codon 72 polymorphism of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 has been associated with a higher risk in the development of several types of cancer. The polymorphism results in a variant protein with either an arginine (CGC) or a proline residue (CCC). The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism with the risk of developing gastric cancer in a high-risk population from the central-western region of Venezuela. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded gastric adenocarcinoma biopsies (n=65) and endoscopic biopsies from chronic gastritis patients (n=87). TP53 codon 72 polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP from all samples. Patients with gastric cancer had a significantly higher frequency (P = 0.037) of the Arg allele than those with chronic gastritis. A logistic regression analysis suggested that Arg carrier individuals had a 4.6-fold higher risk (95% CI 1.0-21.3) of developing gastric cancer. An increment of the Arg/Arg genotype was observed in poor-differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma (OR: 3.1; 95% CI 1.0-9.2), and of the Arg/Pro genotype in well/moderate-differentiated adenocarcinoma samples (OR: 3.5; 95% CI 1.1-11.0), when comparing within the gastric cancer samples; and the last group also when contrasting it with chronic gastritis patients (OR: 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.2). The results of this study suggest that the carriage of the Arg allele could be associated with the development of gastric cancer in this Venezuelan population.