Cystatin D is a candidate tumor suppressor gene induced by vitamin D in human colon cancer cells.
ABSTRACT The active vitamin D metabolite 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha,25(OH)2D3] has wide but not fully understood antitumor activity. A previous transcriptomic analysis of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 action on human colon cancer cells revealed cystatin D (CST5), which encodes an inhibitor of several cysteine proteases of the cathepsin family, as a candidate target gene. Here we report that 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 induced vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding to, and activation of, the CST5 promoter and increased CST5 RNA and protein levels in human colon cancer cells. In cells lacking endogenous cystatin D, ectopic cystatin D expression inhibited both proliferation in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, cystatin D inhibited migration and anchorage-independent growth, antagonized the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, and repressed c-MYC expression. Cystatin D repressed expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition inducers SNAI1, SNAI2, ZEB1, and ZEB2 and, conversely, induced E-cadherin and other adhesion proteins. CST5 knockdown using shRNA abrogated the antiproliferative effect of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3, attenuated E-cadherin expression, and increased c-MYC expression. In human colorectal tumors, expression of cystatin D correlated with expression of VDR and E-cadherin, and loss of cystatin D correlated with poor tumor differentiation. Based on these data, we propose that CST5 has tumor suppressor activity that may contribute to the antitumoral action of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in colon cancer.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The active vitamin D metabolite 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3), Calcitriol) is a major regulator of gene expression in higher organisms. Protein abundance is an endpoint of gene expression that results from the balance between induction and degradation and is essential for adequate cell function. Proteins are degraded by proteases whose activity is in turn controlled by a number of endogenous protease inhibitors. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) regulates several proteases and protease inhibitors in different cell types, putatively contributing to its regulatory effects of cell physiology. We have recently shown that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) strongly induces the expression of cystatin D, an inhibitor of several cysteine proteases of the cathepsin family. Cystatin D induction may contribute to the antitumor effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) against colon cancer by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of cathepsin inhibition. Transcriptomic studies suggest that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also modulates the function of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Thus, proteases and protease inhibitors are candidates to mediate to a certain extent the complex action of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in cancer cells.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 01/2010; 9(1):32-7. · 5.36 Impact Factor