Differences in activities of the lower extremity muscles with and without heel contact during stair ascent by young women wearing high-heeled shoes.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to identify any differences in the activity patterns of lower extremity muscles with and without heel contact during stair ascent by women in their twenties wearing high-heeled shoes.
Twenty healthy female subjects wearing high-heeled shoes walked up a step with a height of 20 cm with and without heel contact, during which the activities of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, and gastrocnemius were recorded using surface electromyography.
During stair ascent the activities of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique were significantly higher and that of the gastrocnemius significantly lower with high-heel contact than without high-heel contact.
We suggest that young women wearing high-heeled shoes should step up with heel contact on the stair surface during stair ascent to activate the quadriceps muscle.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show the effect of different forefoot and heel support surfaces on the activities of the rectus femoris and medial hamstring muscles during the sit-to-stand task while wearing high-heel shoes. [Subjects] Fifteen female subjects were recruited. [Methods] The muscle activities of the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles were recorded using an MP150 system during the sit-to-stand task while wearing various high-heeled shoes. [Results] The activities of the rectus femoris and medial hamstring muscles significantly decreased when subjects wore condition 1 shoes compared with when they wore condition 2, 3 or 4 high-heeled shoes. The activities of the rectus femoris and medial hamstring muscles significantly decreased when subjects wore condition 2 high-heeled shoes compared with condition 3 or 4 high-heeled shoes. [Conclusion] The results can be interpreted as indicating that the size of the forefoot supporting surface can influence the lower extremity muscles of women wearing high-heeled shoes more than the size of the heel supporting surface.Journal of Physical Therapy Science 10/2014; 26(10):1537-8. DOI:10.1589/jpts.26.1537 · 0.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: High heels are a major source of chronic lower limb pain. Yet, more than one third of all women compromise health for looks and wear high heels on a daily basis. Changing from flat footwear to high heels induces chronic muscle shortening associated with discomfort, fatigue, reduced shock absorption, and increased injury risk. However, the long-term effects of high-heeled footwear on the musculoskeletal kinematics of the lower extremities remain poorly understood. Here we create a multiscale computational model for chronic muscle adaptation to characterize the acute and chronic effects of global muscle shortening on local sarcomere lengths. We perform a case study of a healthy female subject and show that raising the heel by 13 cm shortens the gastrocnemius muscle by 5% while the Achilles tendon remains virtually unaffected. Our computational simulation indicates that muscle shortening displays significant regional variations with extreme values of 22% in the central gastrocnemius. Our model suggests that the muscle gradually adjusts to its new functional length by a chronic loss of sarcomeres in series. Sarcomere loss varies significantly across the muscle with an average loss of 9%, virtually no loss at the proximal and distal ends, and a maximum loss of 39% in the central region. These changes reposition the remaining sarcomeres back into their optimal operating regime. Computational modeling of chronic muscle shortening provides a valuable tool to shape our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of muscle adaptation. Our study could open new avenues in orthopedic surgery and enhance treatment for patients with muscle contracture caused by other conditions than high heel wear such as paralysis, muscular atrophy, and muscular dystrophy.Journal of Theoretical Biology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jtbi.2014.10.036 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: [Purpose] This study researched the effects of different types of high heels on the muscles surrounding the cervical spine, the thoracic spine, and the lumbar spine by analyzing muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles during standing while wearing high heels. The high heels were all of the same height: 8 cm. [Subjects and Methods] The 28 subjects in this experiment were females in their 20s with a foot size of 225-230 mm and a normal gait pattern. To measure the muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles, EMG electrodes were attached on the paraspinal muscles around C6, T7, and L5. The muscle activation during standing while wearing 8-cm-high wedge heels, setback heels, and French heels was then measured. The measurements were performed 3 times each, and the mean value was used for analysis. [Results] The levels of muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles induced by standing on wedge heels, setback heels, and French heels in the cervical and lumbar areas were significantly higher than those induced by standing on bare feet. But there was no significant difference according to the heel types. [Conclusion] The height of the heels presented a greater variable than the width of the heels on the muscle activation of paraspinal muscles. Therefore, wearing high heels is not recommended for those who have pain or functional problems in the cervical and/or lumbar spine.Journal of Physical Therapy Science 01/2015; 27(1):67-69. DOI:10.1589/jpts.27.67 · 0.20 Impact Factor