Assessment of pro-vasopressin and pro-adrenomedullin as predictors of 28-day mortality in septic shock patients.
ABSTRACT Improvements in survival after septic shock will most likely rely on our capacity to manage individualized therapies based on the measurement of rapidly accessible biomarkers. As the early phase of septic shock is dominated by severe alterations of the cardiovascular system, the predictive value for mortality of pro-vasopressin (pro-AVP) and pro-adrenomedullin (pro-ADM), two vasoactive pro-hormones, was assessed.
In 99 consecutive patients, pro-hormone concentrations were measured (immunoluminometric assay) three times within the first week after the onset of septic shock.
Pro-AVP and pro-ADM concentrations were significantly increased in non-survivors in comparison with survivors and were significantly associated with mortality after both univariate and multivariate analysis. Importantly, when assessed as a pair, pro-ADM and pro-AVP were even more informative.
Both Pro-ADM and pro-AVP appear to be good biomarkers for the prediction of 28-day mortality after septic shock. However, their association in a single variable tends to improve their predictive capacity.
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ABSTRACT: The present study sought to investigate the correlation of copeptin with the severity of septic status in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and to analyze the usefulness of copeptin as a predictor of mortality in VAP. The prospective observational cohort study was conducted in a teaching hospital. The subjects were 71 patients consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit from October 2003 to August 2005 who developed VAP. Copeptin levels were determined on day 0 and day 4 of VAP. Patients were followed for 28 days after the diagnosis, when they were considered survivors. Patients who died before day 28 were classified as nonsurvivors. There were no interventions. Copeptin levels increased from sepsis to severe sepsis and septic shock both on day 0 and day 4 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). Variables included in the univariable logistic regression analysis for mortality were age, gender, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and ln copeptin on day 0 and day 4. Mortality was directly related to ln copeptin levels on day 0 and day 4, with odds ratios of 2.32 (95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 4.29) and 2.31 (95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 4.25), respectively. In a multivariable logistic regression model for mortality, only ln copeptin on day 0 with odds ratio 1.97 (95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 3.69) and ln copeptin on day 4 with odds ratio 2.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.24 to 4.62) remained significant. Our data demonstrate that copeptin levels increase progressively with the severity of sepsis and are independent predictors of mortality in VAP.Critical care (London, England) 02/2008; 12(1):R11. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a potent vasodilatory peptide, and circulating concentrations have been described for several disease states, including dysfunction of the cardiovascular system and sepsis. Reliable quantification has been hampered by the short half-life, the existence of a binding protein, and physical properties. Here we report the technical evaluation of an assay for midregional pro-ADM (MR-proADM) that does not have these problems. MR-proADM was measured in a sandwich immunoluminometric assay using 2 polyclonal antibodies to amino acids 45-92 of proADM. The reference interval was defined in EDTA plasma of 264 healthy individuals (117 male, 147 female), and increased MR-proADM concentrations were found in 95 patients with sepsis and 54 patients with cardiovascular disease. The assay has an analytical detection limit of 0.08 nmol/L, and the interassay CV was <20% for values >0.12 nmol/L. The assay was linear on dilution with undisturbed recovery of the analyte. EDTA-, heparin-, and citrate-plasma samples were stable (<20% loss of analyte) for at least 3 days at room temperature, 14 days at 4 degrees C, and 1 year at -20 degrees C. MR-proADM values followed a gaussian distribution in healthy individuals with a mean (SD) of 0.33 (0.07) nmol/L (range, 0.10-0.64 nmol/L), without significant difference between males or females. The correlation coefficient for MR-proADM vs age was 0.50 (P < 0.001). MR-proADM was significantly (P < 0.001) increased in patients with cardiovascular disease [median (range), 0.56 (0.08-3.9) nmol/L] and patients with sepsis [3.7 (0.72-25.4) nmol/L]. MR-proADM is stable in plasma of healthy individuals and patients. MR-proADM measurements may be useful for evaluating patients with sepsis, systemic inflammation, or heart failure.Clinical Chemistry 10/2005; 51(10):1823-9. · 7.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The immediate overwhelming release of inflammatory mediators in septic shock is rapidly followed by strong anti-inflammatory responses inducing a state of immunosuppression. The patients who survive the initial hyper-inflammatory step of septic shock but subsequently die may be those who do not recover from immunosuppression. We assessed whether a low monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR) expression, proposed as a marker of immunosuppression, is an independent predictor of mortality in patients who survived the initial 48 h of septic shock. Prospective observational study performed in two adult intensive care units at a university hospital. 93 consecutive patients with septic shock. At days 1-2, mHLA-DR values (determined by flow cytometry) were not significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. A sharp difference became highly significant at days 3-4 when survivors had increased their values, while non-survivors had not (43% vs. 18%, percentage of HLA-DR positive monocyte, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that low mHLA-DR (< 30%) at days 3-4 remained independently associated with mortality after adjustment for usual clinical confounders, adjusted odds ratio (CI): 6.48 (95% CI: 1.62-25.93). The present preliminary results show that mHLA-DR is an independent predictor of mortality in septic shock patients. Being a marker of immune failure, low mHLA-DR may provide a rationale for initiating therapy to reverse immunosuppression. After validation of the current results in multicenter studies, mHLA-DR may help to stratify patients when designing a mediator-directed therapy in a time-dependent manner.Intensive Care Medicine 08/2006; 32(8):1175-83. · 5.26 Impact Factor