[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of lipid metabolism in individual tissues leads to systemic disruption of insulin action and glucose metabolism. Utilizing quantitative lipidomic analyses and mice deficient in adipose tissue lipid chaperones aP2 and mal1, we explored how metabolic alterations in adipose tissue are linked to whole-body metabolism through lipid signals. A robust increase in de novo lipogenesis rendered the adipose tissue of these mice resistant to the deleterious effects of dietary lipid exposure. Systemic lipid profiling also led to identification of C16:1n7-palmitoleate as an adipose tissue-derived lipid hormone that strongly stimulates muscle insulin action and suppresses hepatosteatosis. Our data reveal a lipid-mediated endocrine network and demonstrate that adipose tissue uses lipokines such as C16:1n7-palmitoleate to communicate with distant organs and regulate systemic metabolic homeostasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage infiltration of white adipose tissue (WAT) is implicated in the metabolic complications of obesity. The precipitating event(s) and function(s) of macrophage infiltration into WAT are unknown. We demonstrate that >90% of all macrophages in WAT of obese mice and humans are localized to dead adipocytes, where they fuse to form syncytia that sequester and scavenge the residual "free" adipocyte lipid droplet and ultimately form multinucleate giant cells, a hallmark of chronic inflammation. Adipocyte death increases in obese (db/db) mice (30-fold) and humans and exhibits ultrastructural features of necrosis (but not apoptosis). These observations identify necrotic-like adipocyte death as a pathologic hallmark of obesity and suggest that scavenging of adipocyte debris is an important function of WAT macrophages in obese individuals. The frequency of adipocyte death is positively correlated with increased adipocyte size in obese mice and humans and in hormone-sensitive lipase-deficient (HSL-/-) mice, a model of adipocyte hypertrophy without increased adipose mass. WAT of HSL-/- mice exhibited a 15-fold increase in necrotic-like adipocyte death and formation of macrophage syncytia, coincident with increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression. These results provide a novel framework for understanding macrophage recruitment, function, and persistence in WAT of obese individuals.
The Journal of Lipid Research 12/2005; 46(11):2347-55. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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