Peripheral levels of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and plasma viscosity predict future cognitive decline in individuals without dementia.

Centre for Population Health Sciences, Public Health Sciences Section, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, Scotland, UK.
Psychosomatic Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.09). 08/2009; 71(8):901-6. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181b1e538
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine whether circulating levels of the biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, and hematocrit were associated with cognitive decline in middle-aged to elderly people.
Subjects consisted of 2312 men and women aged 50 to 80 years participating in the Aspirin for Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis Trial, all of whom were free of symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline. Biomarker levels and cognitive ability were measured at baseline with cognition assessed in all subjects using the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale and in a subgroup of 504 persons using tests of memory, nonverbal reasoning, information processing speed, executive function, and mental flexibility. After 5 years, the five-test battery was administered to all participants and scores were used to derive a general cognitive ability factor.
Baseline CRP and fibrinogen levels were associated negatively with age and sex-adjusted follow-up scores on the majority of the cognitive tests, and the general cognitive ability factor (correlations = -0.054 to 0.105, p < .05). In analyses adjusting for baseline cognitive scores, asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, both markers predicted decline in several cognitive domains (excluding memory). Baseline plasma viscosity, but not hematocrit, was associated negatively with follow-up test scores for general cognitive ability, information processing speed, and mental flexibility (correlations = -0.050 to -0.098, p < .05) and with decline across the same domains (p < .05).
Increased circulating levels of CRP, fibrinogen, and elevated plasma viscosity predicted poorer subsequent cognitive ability and were associated with age-related cognitive decline in several domains, including general ability.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives To examine associations between specific inflammatory biomarkers and cognitive function in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs) with prevalent vascular risk factors.DesignCross-sectional analysis using generalized estimating equations to account for familial clustering; standardized β-coefficients, adjusted for age, sex, and education are reported.SettingCommunity cohort study in Jackson, Mississippi, and Rochester, Minnesota.ParticipantsGenetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA)–Genetics of Microangiopathic Brain Injury (GMBI) Study participants.MeasurementsAssociations between inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 and 2 (sTNFR1, sTNFR2)) and cognitive function (global, processing speed, language, memory, and executive function) were examined in AAs and EAs (N = 1,965; aged 26–95, 64% women, 52% AA, 75% with hypertension).ResultsIn AAs, higher sTNFR2 was associated with poorer cognition in all domains (global: −0.11, P = .009; processing speed: −0.11, P < .001; language: −0.08, P = .002; memory: −0.09, P = .008; executive function: −0.07, P = .03); sTNFR1 was associated with slower processing speed (−0.08, P < .001) and poorer executive function (−0.08, P = .008); higher CRP was associated with slower processing speed (−0.04, P = .024), and higher IL6 was associated with poorer executive function (−0.07, P = .02). In EA, only higher sTNFR1 was associated with slower processing speed (−0.05, P = .007). Associations were not found between cognition and sTNFR2, CRP, or IL6 in EA.Conclusion In a population with high vascular risk, adverse associations between inflammation and cognitive function were especially apparent in AAs, primarily involving markers of TNFα activity.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 12/2014; 62(12). DOI:10.1111/jgs.13165 · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: circulating measures of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with an increased risk of future cognitive decline. However, the nature of the relationship among the very old (>75 years) is unclear. Cross-sectional evidence suggests that elevated CRP may even be protective in this age group. This study examines these associations longitudinally. logistic regression was used to investigate the association between CRP and drop in cognitive performance (≥3 point change on the Mini-Mental State Examination) over a 4-year period in a population of 266 people, mean age 77 years. increased levels of CRP were associated with a decreased risk of a drop in cognitive performance; however, this association was only seen in those without an APOE e4 allele [odds ratio of decline per unit increase in ln(CRP) 0.57, P = 0.04]. The magnitude of the finding remained consistent after adjustment for cardiovascular confounders (smoking, drinking, MI, stroke, diabetes, education, medication and blood pressure). For those with an e4 allele, the relationship with longitudinal cognitive decline was neither statistically significant nor in a consistent direction after controlling for acute inflammation. this study strengthens previous cross-sectional findings and shows elevated levels of CRP to be linked to a decreased risk of longitudinal cognitive decline in the very old. However, as with prior analyses, this was only observed in those not carrying an APOE e4 allele. Future work on larger APOE e4 allele carrying samples is required to determine the nature of the association in this population.
    Age and Ageing 12/2013; DOI:10.1093/ageing/aft193 · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Probiotics are consumed in a wide variety of fermented foods to improve health. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk (LHFM), on cognitive function in healthy older adults. A 12-week, double-blind, randomized controlled experiment was conducted. Cognitive tests (neuropsychological and cognitive fatigue) and measurements of the perceived stress scale (PSS), geriatric depression scale-short form (GDS-SF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and whole blood viscosity (WBV) were conducted before and after the experiment. The administration of LHFM for 12 weeks in healthy older adults produced improvement on cognitive tests compared to the placebo group. However, no significant effects were observed for PSS, GDS-SF, BDNF, and WBV. Thus, consumption of LHFM might be beneficial for improving cognitive function.
    Journal of Functional Foods 09/2014; 10:465–474. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.07.007 · 4.48 Impact Factor


1 Download
Available from