Cancer Incidence in First Generation US Hispanics: Cubans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and New Latinos

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 09/2009; 18(8):2162-9. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0329
Source: PubMed


The diversity among Hispanics/Latinos, defined by geographic origin (e.g., Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba), has been neglected when assessing cancer morbidity. For the first time in the United States, we estimated cancer rates for Cubans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos, and analyzed changes in cancer risk between Hispanics in their countries of origin, U.S. Hispanics in Florida, and non-Hispanic Whites in Florida.
Florida cancer registry (1999-2001) and the 2000 U.S. Census population data were used. The Hispanic Origin Identification Algorithm was applied to establish Hispanic ethnicity and subpopulation.
The cancer rate of 537/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 522.5-552.5) for Hispanic males in Florida was lower than Whites (601; 595.4-606.9). Among women, these rates were 376 (365.6-387.1) and 460 (455.6-465.4), respectively. Among Florida Hispanics, Puerto Ricans had the highest rates, followed by Cubans. Mexicans had the lowest rates. Rates for Hispanics in Florida were at least 40% higher than Hispanics in their countries of origin, as reported by the IARC.
Substantial variability in cancer rates occurs among Hispanic subpopulations. Cubans, unlike other Hispanics, were comparable with Whites, especially for low rates of cervical and stomach cancers. Despite being overwhelmingly first generation in the U.S. mainland, Puerto Ricans and Cubans in Florida showed rates of colorectal, endometrial, and prostate cancers similar to Whites in Florida. Because rates are markedly lower in their countries of origin, the increased risk for cancer among Cubans, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans who move to the United States should be further studied.

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Available from: Paulo Pinheiro, Jan 25, 2014
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    • "Our results suggest a likely contribution of AL to such disparities; thus, studies and interventions aimed at understanding and reducing AL may be helpful in curbing prevalence of chronic disease in Puerto Ricans and other similar high risk populations. Self-reported cancer prevalence in our sample was unexpectedly low, as previous reports show high numbers of co-morbidities in cancer patients (Extermann, 2007) and relatively high cancer rates in mainland Puerto Ricans (Ho et al., 2009; Pinheiro et al., 2009). Bias in study participation or in self report cannot be ruled out. "
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    • "Regarding the SRR's, consistent with studies performed in the 70's and 80's [4,5], the incidence of endometrial cancer in Puerto Rico from 1999-2003 was significantly lower than that of NHW and NHB. Although we observed similar incidence rates between Puerto Rican and Hispanic women, recent studies suggest that Puerto Ricans are the Hispanic subgroup most affected by cancer in the United States [38], and that endometrial cancer in island Puerto Ricans is in fact lower than that of mainland Puerto Ricans [38,39]; a pattern also consistent with historical data [5]. Thus, future analytic studies between mainland and island Puerto Ricans should help elucidate the risk factors and the potential gene-environment interactions that occur among Puerto Ricans once they migrate to the continental United States, and that result in increased incidence of the disease in this group. "
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