Comprehensive lung injury pathology induced by mTOR inhibitors.
ABSTRACT Interstitial lung disease is a rare side effect of temsirolimus treatment in renal cancer patients. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterised by the accumulation of extracellular matrix collagen, fibroblast proliferation and migration, and loss of alveolar gas exchange units. Previous studies of pulmonary fibrosis have mainly focused on the fibroproliferative process in the lungs. However, the molecular mechanism by which sirolimus promotes lung fibrosis remains elusive. Here, we propose an overall cascade hypothesis of interstitial lung diseases that represents a common, partly underlying synergism among them as well as the lung pathogenesis side effects of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors.
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ABSTRACT: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare and aggressive subtype of lymphoma associated with a poor prognosis. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of frontline treatment for patients with this disease. Despite high response rates to combination chemotherapy regimens, the majority of patients relapse within a few years of treatment. Therefore, finding efficacious treatments for relapsed or refractory disease has become a growing area of clinical research. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is responsible for integrating cell signals from growth factors, hormones, and nutrients and communicating energy status. Scientific research on aberrant molecular pathways in cancer has revealed that several proteins along the mTOR pathway may be upregulated in this and other types of lymphoma. Temsirolimus is the first mTOR inhibitor that has shown clinical efficacy in treating MCL that has relapsed after frontline treatments.OncoTargets and Therapy 09/2010; 3:167-78. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The toxicities of newer targeted therapies are different from those seen with the traditional chemotherapy. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are evolving into an important class of drugs in oncology, and this class of drugs presents with a variety of different toxicities. Although similar to the toxicities seen in transplantation, these rapamycin analogs have unique side effects when compared to traditional chemotherapy agents. While most of the toxicities are mild, few can be severe and require routine monitoring. Mucositis and rash are the most common side effects. The metabolic toxicities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypophosphatemia are different from the side effects traditionally seen with chemotherapy. This review will focus on the common toxicities seen with the mTOR inhibitors.Targeted Oncology 04/2011; 6(2):125-9. DOI:10.1007/s11523-011-0174-9 · 3.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tracheal stenosis due to either benign or malignant disease is a situation that the pulmonary physicians and thoracic surgeons have to cope in their everyday clinical practice. In the case where tracheal stenosis is caused due to malignancy mini-interventional interventions with laser, apc, cryoprobe, balloon dilation or with combination of more than one equipment and technique can be used. On the other hand, in the case of a benign disease such as; tracheomalacia the clinician can immediately upon diagnosis proceed to the stent placement. In both situations however; it has been observed that the stents induce formation of granuloma tissue in both or one end of the stent. Therefore a frequent evaluation of the patient is necessary, taking also into account the nature of the primary disease. Evaluation methodologies identifying different types and extent of the trachea stenosis have been previously published. However; we still do not have an effective adjuvant therapy to prevent granuloma tissue formation or prolong already treated granuloma lesions. There have been proposed many mechanisms which induce the abnormal growth of the local tissue, such as; local pressure, local stress, inflammation and vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression. Immunomodulatory agents inhibiting the mTOR pathway are capable of inhibiting the inflammatory cascade locally. In the current mini-review we will try to present the current knowledge of drug eluting stents inhibiting the mTOR pathway and propose a future application of these stents as a local anti-proliferative treatment.Journal of molecular and genetic medicine: an international journal of biomedical research 08/2013; 7:65. DOI:10.4172/1747-0862.1000065