Endovascular treatment of acute traumatic thoracic aortic injuries: a retrospective analysis of 20 cases.
ABSTRACT We report our 10-year experience in the endovascular treatment of acute traumatic thoracic aorta rupture at the Hospital Clinic.
We reviewed 20 patients with an acute traumatic thoracic aorta lesion treated with a thoracic endograft between August 1997 and July 2007. All patients had multi-trauma resulting from high-velocity accidents or accidents with great impact. The diagnosis of aortic injury was made on a clinical basis and conventional imaging, confirmed by computed tomographic angiography. The following parameters were studied: age, sex, type and site of the lesion, type of endovascular graft, endovascular operation time, length of stay in the intensive care unit, length of stay in the hospital, immediate and perioperative complications, and mortality. Follow-up data were recorded, consisting of clinical visits, computed tomographic angiography, and plain chest radiographs at regular intervals (3, 6, and 12 months and every subsequent year). The mean follow-up was 58 months.
All endovascular procedures were technically successful, and the mean operating time for the endovascular procedure was 74 minutes (range, 55-130 minutes). We recorded an external iliac lesion during the procedure as an unique immediate complication, and it was corrected by an iliofemoral bypass. The only perioperative death (perioperative mortality rate of 5%) was unrelated to the aortic rupture or stent placement. There was no intervention-related mortality during the follow-up. Postoperative data showed no severe endovascular graft- or procedure-related morbidity. We recorded 2 cases of stent fracture, diagnosed by chest radiograph and computed tomographic angiography, without clinical impact or signs of endoleak.
The short- and mid-term results of immediate endovascular repair of traumatic aortic injuries are promising, especially when compared with open surgical treatment, indicating that endovascular therapy is preferable in patients with multi-trauma and traumatic ruptures of the thoracic aorta. Nevertheless, long-term follow-up data are necessary to assess the overall durability of this procedure, considering the young age of these patients. The long-term follow-up results will determine whether endovascular treatment should replace open surgery as first-line therapy in thoracic aortic injuries.
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ABSTRACT: Conventional surgery for thoracic aortic emergencies, such as contained or free rupture of thoracic aortic aneurysms, acute type B dissections, and traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta, is frequently associated with a high rate of mortality and morbidity. To obviate this risk, endovascular surgery is considered to be a valid alternative procedure. From March 2001 to July 2002, 15 of 22 patients with acute thoracic aortic syndromes were submitted to endovascular surgery: 3 patients (20%) for traumatic rupture, 4 patients (26.7%) for contained or free rupture of thoracic aortic aneurysm, and 8 patients (53.3%) for acute type B dissection evolving to rupture. Computed tomographic scan was diagnostic in all patients. The stent grafts were introduced through the femoral artery. In the endovascular group there were no perioperative deaths or open conversions. The intraoperative angiography and computed tomographic scan performed on discharge showed no significant endoleaks and successful sealing of the aortic dissection. Average intensive care unit and hospital stay was 1.7 +/- 0.8 and 5.9 +/- 3.0 days. Follow-up ranged between 4 and 23 months and included clinical examinations and serial computed tomographic scan at 3, 6, and 12 months, and every 6 months thereafter. One 84-year-old patient with thoracic aortic aneurysm died of pneumonia 78 days after endovascular surgery. Only one type 1 endoleak was noted in the first patient with traumatic rupture, 3 months after the procedure. Endovascular surgery is a safe technique, showing encouraging early and midterm results and allowing for prompt treatment of associated lesions in complex multitrauma patients.The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 03/2004; 77(2):591-6. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The study's objective was to comparatively evaluate surgery and stent-graft repair of acute or subacute traumatic aortic rupture. A total of 76 patients (14-76 years old; mean, 37 years; male/female ratio, 63/11) with a traumatic aortic injury were admitted to our hospital between 1981 and 2003. Six patients died within 1 to 9 days of another associated severe traumatic lesion. The 70 remaining patients were divided according to the type of rupture repair. In group 1, 35 patients were treated surgically: 28 with immediate repair and 7 with delayed repair (average time interval 66 days, 5-257 days). In group 2, 29 patients were treated with stent grafting of the aortic isthmus. In group 3, 6 patients with minor aortic lesions were treated medically with a close follow-up. In the 28 patients treated surgically in the emergency department, the mortality and paraplegia rates were 21% and 7%, respectively. No death or paraplegia was observed in the group with delayed surgical repair. With stent grafting, complete exclusion of the pseudoaneurysmal sac was observed in all patients. Except for 1 iliac rupture treated during the same procedure, there was no major morbidity or mortality during the mean follow-up of 46 months (13-90 months). No major complication was observed in group 3. In stable rupture of the aorta, initial conservative treatment is safe and allows management of the major associated lesions. Stent grafting of the aortic isthmus is a valuable therapeutic alternative to surgical repair, especially in patients considered high risk for conventional thoracotomy.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 06/2005; 129(5):1050-5. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endoleaks are one of the unique complications seen after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TEVAR). This investigation was performed to evaluate the incidence and determinants of endoleaks, as well as the outcomes of secondary interventions in patients with endoleaks, after TEVAR. Over a 6-year period, 105 patients underwent TEVAR in the context of pivotal Food and Drug Administration trials with the Medtronic Talent (n = 64) and Gore TAG (n = 41) devices. The medical and radiology records of these patients were reviewed for this retrospective study. Of these, 69 patients (30 women and 39 men) had follow-up longer than 1 month and were used for this analysis. The patients were evaluated for the presence of an endoleak, endoleak type, aneurysm expansion, and endoleak intervention. The mean follow-up in this patient cohort was 17.3 +/- 14.7 months (range, 3-71 months). Endoleaks were detected in 29% (20/69) of patients, of which 40% (8/20) were type I, 35% (7/20) were type II, 20% (4/20) were type III, and 5% (1/20) had more than one type of endoleak. Patients without endoleaks experienced greater aneurysm sac regression than those with endoleaks (-2.89 +/- 9.1 mm vs -0.13 +/- 7.2 mm), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = .232). All but 2 endoleaks (90%; 18/20) were detected on the initial postoperative computed tomographic scan at 30 days. Two endoleaks (10%; 2/20) developed late. The endoleak group had more extensive aneurysms with significantly larger aneurysms at the time of intervention (69.4 +/- 10.5 mm vs 60.6 +/- 11.0 mm; P = .003). Factors predictive of endoleak included male sex (P = .016), larger aneurysm size (P = .003), the length of aorta treated by stent grafts (P = .0004), and an increasing number of stents used (P < .0001). No open conversions were performed for treatment of endoleaks. Four (50%) of the eight type I endoleaks were successfully repaired by using endovascular techniques. None of the type II endoleaks was treated by secondary intervention. During follow-up, the maximum aneurysm diameter in the type II endoleak patients increased a mean of 2.94 +/- 7.2 mm (range, -4.4 to 17 mm). Spontaneous thrombosis has occurred in 29% (2/7) of the type II endoleaks. Patients with type III endoleaks experienced a decrease in mean maximal aneurysm diameter of 0.78 +/- 3.1 mm during follow-up. Endoleaks are not uncommon after TEVAR. Many type I endoleaks may be treated successfully by endovascular means. Short-term follow-up suggests that observational management of type II endoleaks is associated with continued sac expansion, and these patients should be monitored closely.Journal of Vascular Surgery 09/2006; 44(3):447-52. · 2.88 Impact Factor