A child cohort study from southern Italy enlarges the genetic spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most frequent genetic cardiovascular disorder worldwide. It is the leading cause of sudden cardiac-related death in young people and a major cause of cardiac failure and death in elderly people. However, HCM frequently goes undiagnosed until the appearance of overt signs and symptoms, thereby delaying prophylactic and therapeutic measures. We screened patients for sarcomeric genes associated with HCM to obtain information that could be useful for an early diagnosis and so limit the severe consequences of silent HCM. We recruited 39 families with HCM from southern Italy and found mutations in 41% of families (12 with familial HCM and 4 with sporadic HCM). The remaining 23 families (59%) were negative for myofilament gene mutations. Of the 12 mutations identified, 8 were novel. Screening of the other family members available revealed that 27 had mutations; 11 of these individuals had no signs or symptoms suggestive of HCM. This study, besides characterizing the spectrum of mutations in another childhood population, and revealing an even greater genetic heterogeneity than formerly recognized, may increase genotype-phenotype correlations, and thus may help to identify asymptomatic candidates for early preventive or therapeutic measures.
Article: Prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a general population of young adults. Echocardiographic analysis of 4111 subjects in the CARDIA Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetically transmitted disease and an important cause of morbidity and sudden cardiac death in young people, including competitive athletes. At present, however, few data exist to estimate the prevalence of this disease in large populations. As part of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) Study, an epidemiological study of coronary risk factors, 4111 men and women 23 to 35 years of age selected from the general population of four urban centers had technically satisfactory echocardiographic studies during 1987 through 1988. Probable or definite echocardiographic evidence of HCM was present in 7 subjects (0.17%) on the basis of identification of a hypertrophied, nondilated left ventricle and maximal wall thickness > or = 15 mm that were not associated with systemic hypertension. Prevalence in men and women was 0.26:0.09%; in blacks and whites, 0.24:0.10%. Ventricular septal thickness was 15 to 21 mm (mean, 17 mm) in the 7 subjects. Only 1 of the 7 subjects had ever experienced important cardiac symptoms attributable to HCM, had previously been suspected of having cardiovascular disease, or had obstruction to left ventricular outflow; 4 other subjects had relatively mild systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve that was insufficient to produce dynamic basal outflow obstruction. ECGs were abnormal in 5 of the 7 subjects. Five other study subjects had left ventricular wall thicknesses of 15 to 21 mm that were a consequence of systemic hypertension. HCM was present in about 2 of 1000 young adults. These unique population-based data will aid in assessments of the impact of HCM-related mortality and morbidity in the general population and the practicality of screening large populations for HCM, including those comprising competitive athletes.Circulation 08/1995; 92(4):785-9. · 14.74 Impact Factor
Article: The genetic basis for cardiomyopathy: from mutation identification to mechanistic paradigms.Cell 03/2001; 104(4):557-67. · 32.40 Impact Factor
Article: Mutations in the gamma(2) subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: evidence for the central role of energy compromise in disease pathogenesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been widely studied as a genetic model of cardiac hypertrophy and sudden cardiac death. HCM has been defined as a disease of the cardiac sarcomere, but mutations in the known contractile protein disease genes are not found in up to one-third of cases. Further, no consistent changes in contractile properties are shared by these mutant proteins, implying that an abnormality of force generation may not be the underlying mechanism of disease. Instead, all of the sarcomeric mutations appear to result in inefficient use of ATP, suggesting that an inability to maintain normal ATP levels may be the central abnormality. To test this hypothesis we have examined candidate genes involved in energy homeostasis in the heart. We now describe mutations in PRKAG2, encoding the gamma(2) subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in two families with severe HCM and aberrant conduction from atria to ventricles in some affected individuals (pre-excitation or Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). The mutations, one missense and one in-frame single codon insertion, occur in highly conserved regions. Because AMPK provides a central sensing mechanism that protects cells from exhaustion of ATP supplies, we propose that these data substantiate energy compromise as a unifying pathogenic mechanism in all forms of HCM. This conclusion should radically redirect thinking about this disorder and also, by establishing energy depletion as a cause of myocardial dysfunction, should be relevant to the acquired forms of heart muscle disease that HCM models.Human Molecular Genetics 06/2001; 10(11):1215-20. · 7.64 Impact Factor