Structural characterization of the conformational change in calbindin-D28k upon calcium binding using differential surface modification analyzed by mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT Calbindin-D28k is a calcium binding protein with six EF hand domains. Calbindin-D28k is unique in that it functions as both a calcium buffer and a sensor protein. It is found in many tissues, including brain, pancreas, kidney, and intestine, playing important roles in each. Calbindin-D28k is known to bind four calcium ions and upon calcium binding undergoes a conformational change. The structure of apo calbindin-D28k is in an ordered state, transitioning into a disordered state as calcium is bound. Once fully loaded with four calcium ions, it again takes on an ordered state. The solution structure of disulfide-reduced holo-calbindin-D28k has been determined by NMR, while the structure of apo calbindin-D28k has yet to be determined. Differential surface modification of lysine and histidine residues analyzed by mass spectrometry has been used in this study to identify, for the first time, the specific regions of calbindin-D28k undergoing conformational changes between the holo and apo states. Using differential surface modification in combination with mass spectrometry, EF hands 1 and 4 as well as the linkers before EF hand 1 and the linkers between EF hands 4 and 5 and EF hands 5 and 6 were identified as regions of conformational change between apo and holo calbindin-D28k. Under the experimental conditions employed, EF hands 2 and 6, which are known not to bind calcium, were unaffected in either form. EF hand 2 is highly accessible; however, EF hand 6 was determined not to be surface accessible in either form. Previous research has identified a disulfide bond between cysteines 94 and 100 in the holo state. Until now, it was unknown whether this bond also exists in the apo form. Our data confirm the presence of the disulfide bond between cysteines 94 and 100 in the holo form and indicate that there is predominantly no disulfide bond between these residues in the apoprotein.
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ABSTRACT: Calbindin D(28k) (calbindin) is a member of the calmodulin superfamily of Ca(2+)-binding proteins. An intracellular target of calbindin was discovered using bacteriophage display. Human recombinant calbindin was immobilized on magnetic beads and used in affinity purification of phage-displayed peptides from a random 12-mer peptide library. One sequence, SYSSIAKYPSHS, was strongly selected both in the presence of Mg(2+) and in the presence of Ca(2+). Homology search against the protein sequence data base identified a closely similar sequence, ISSIKEKYPSHS, at residues 55-66 in myo-inositol-1(or 4)-monophosphatase (IMPase, EC ), which constitute a strongly conserved and exposed region in the three-dimensional structure. IMPase is a key enzyme in the regulation of the activity of the phosphatidylinositol-signaling pathway. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of myo-inositol-1(or 4)-monophosphate to form free myo-inositol, maintaining a supply that represents the precursor for inositol phospholipid second messenger signaling systems. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that isolated calbindin and IMPase interact with an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant, K(D), of 0.9 microm. Both apo and Ca(2+)-bound calbindin was found to activate IMPase up to 250-fold, depending on the pH and substrate concentration. The activation is most pronounced at conditions that otherwise lead to a very low activity of IMPase, i.e. at reduced pH and at low substrate concentration.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2002; 277(44):41954-9. · 4.77 Impact Factor