When flamingos rest, they typically lay their heads along their backs. In order to achieve this positioning they curve their necks to either the right or left of their midline. Previously we have shown both individual and flock-level laterality of preferred neck-resting direction, with most birds preferring to rest their necks to their right (Anderson, Williams, & O'Brien, 2009). As laterality has been shown to play a role in social cohesion (e.g., Rogers & Workman, 1989) and aggression (e.g., Vallortigara, Cozzutti, Tommasi, & Rogers, 2001), here we attempted to determine whether a flamingo's preferred neck-resting direction could be used to predict involvement in aggressive encounters. Results replicated the earlier flock-level preference for neck resting towards the right, and indicated that those flamingos preferring the left were more likely to be involved in aggressive encounters.
"Stevens et al. (1992) suggested that egg losses in Chilean Flamingos were a result of intraspecific aggressive interactions at nesting mounds. Finally, Anderson et al. (2009) determined that preferred neck‐resting position predicts aggression in American Flamingos. Beyond these studies, aggressive conspecific interactions among captive flamingos and our understanding of how social interactions shift as individuals transition from nonbreeding to breeding status have gone largely unexplored. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This observational study of captive Caribbean Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) sought to investigate the possible functions of unipedal and bipedal resting. In particular, this research sought to further examine the possibility that thermoregulation is a primary function of unipedal resting. Significant negative correlations were found between length of unipedal resting and average temperature, and between length of unipedal resting and average heat index, indicating that temperature is a major factor in determination of resting stance. A significant negative correlation was also obtained between length of unipedal resting and average wind chill, but as the observed wind chills did not significantly differ from the temperatures, such a finding is to be expected. These results suggest that flamingos rest on one leg for longer intervals in an attempt to conserve body heat. Further, a significant positive correlation between length of bipedal resting and average wind speed suggests that on windy days, a bipedal stance is preferred to enhance stability when resting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When flamingos rest, they typically lay their head on their back and curve their neck to either the right or left of their body, with both individual and population-level lateral preferences for rightward neck resting when preferences are tracked over time (Anderson, Williams, & O'Brien, 2009). The present study attempted to replicate these previous neck-resting preferences, to examine how they changed over time, and to examine the possibility of a relationship between lateral neck-resting preference and pair bonding in captive Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) housed at the Philadelphia Zoo (Philadelphia, PA, USA). Results successfully replicated the individual- and population-level lateral preferences for rightward neck resting, and demonstrated that these preferences were stable over time. Moreover, individual flamingos that demonstrated stronger pair bond strengths tended to differ less from their partners in terms of neck-resting preference than did those birds displaying weaker pair bond strengths, suggesting a relationship between laterality and social cohesion.
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