Article

Actinomyces species: A Danish Survey on Human Infections and Microbiological Characteristics.

Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Departments of Clinical Microbiology.
The Open Microbiology Journal 02/2009; 3:113-20. DOI: 10.2174/1874285800903010113
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study compared phenotypic and genotypic identification of Actinomyces strains, tested susceptibility to antibiotics and evaluated their clinical importance. Thirty-four Actinomyces strains were examined; sixteen type strains, and 18 clinical strains from different hospitals in Denmark from the period 2003-2005. Partial 16S rDNA sequencing using a stretch of 526 bases was used for genotypic identification. Susceptibility testing was done by E-test. The antibiotics examined were: benzylpenicillin, piperacillin with tazobactam, ceftriaxone, meropenem, erythromycin, clindamycin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, tetracycline and tigecycline. Clinical parameters were obtained by reviewing patient records. There was poor agreement between the phenotypic and genotypic identification. Phenotypic tests were helpful in identifying strains closely related by DNA sequences. The strains were sensitive to the examined antibiotics except for moxifloxacin to which most strains were resistant, and a few strains were resistant to meropenem and tetracycline. The clinical strains were from many different types of infections and locations. None of the patients was described as having typical actinomycetic lesions, and an apparently good outcome was obtained with different treatment regimens.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
219 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant indigenous flora of humans and, as a result, play an important role in infections, some of which are serious with a high mortality rate. These opportunistic pathogens are frequently missed in cultures of clinical samples because of shortcomings in collection and transport procedures as well as lack of isolation and susceptibility testing of anaerobes in many clinical microbiology laboratories. Correlation of clinical failures with known antibacterial resistance of anaerobic bacteria is seldom possible. Changes in resistance over time, and the discovery and characterization of resistance determinants in anaerobic bacteria, has increased recognition of problems in empirical treatment and has even resulted in changes in treatment guidelines. This review discusses the role of anaerobic bacteria in the normal flora of humans, their involvement in different mixed infections, developments in antibacterial resistance of the most frequent anaerobic pathogens and possible new treatment options.
    Drugs 05/2010; 70(7):841-58. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Actinomyces neuii, a species first described in 1994, has proven to be an exception in this genus on account of its aerobic growth, microscopic morphology (no branching), and the types and location of infections. Abscesses and infected atheromas are the most frequent types of infections, followed by infected skin structures, endophthalmitis, and bacteremias, including endocarditis. They are most likely of endogenous origin. To date, approximately 100 cases have been recorded in the literature. Intra-abdominal and intrathoracic infections, however, have not yet been described, and cases of classical actinomycosis seem to be extremely rare. Prognosis has generally been good with antibiotic and/or surgical treatment. Susceptibility to antibiotics has paralleled that of other Actinomyces spp.
    Infection 02/2011; 39(2):97-100. · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There have been few studies of pulmonary actinomycosis, which is an uncommon anaerobic infection. Consequently, the optimal therapeutic regimen, appropriate duration of treatment, long-term prognosis, and factors predicting prognosis are not well established. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of histopathologically confirmed cases of pulmonary actinomycosis seen between November 2003 and December 2012. The study included 68 patients with a mean age of 58.4 +/- 11.6 years. Of the 68, initial surgery was performed in 15 patients (22.1%), while the remaining 53 (77.9%) received antibiotic therapy initially. In the initial antibiotic group, 45/53 (84.9%) were cured without relapse (median antibiotic duration 5.3 months). 5/53 (9.4%) patients were refractory medically (median antibiotic duration 9.7 months), and 3/53 (5.7%) experienced a recurrence (median time to relapse 35.3 months). In the initial surgery group, 14/15 (93.3%) were cured and treatment failure occurred in one (6.7%). In the multivariate analysis, the absence of an antibiotic response at 1 month was the only independent factor associated with a poor treatment outcome, with an adjusted odds ratio of 49.2 (95% CI, 3.34-724.30). There was no significant difference in treatment outcome based on the size of the parenchymal lesion, comorbidities, whether intravenous antibiotics were used, antibiotic therapy duration, or whether the initial treatment was surgical. Antibiotic treatment with or without surgery was effective for treatment of pulmonary actinomycosis. Nevertheless, treatment failure or recurrence occurred in a considerable proportion of patients, especially those resistant to the initial antibiotic treatment.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2014; 14(1):10. · 3.03 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
22 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014