DNA damage and apoptosis induced by photosensitization of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin via singlet oxygen generation.
ABSTRACT Cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT) requires photosensitizers that efficiently and selectively destroy tumor cells. We investigated 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin (TMPyP) as a potential cancer treatment. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that TMPyP was localized in the nuclei, whereas 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-derived protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) was localized diffusely in the cytoplasm of human leukemia (HL-60) cells. In HL-60 cells under UVA irradiation, TMPyP effectively induced apoptosis. Moreover, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, an oxidative product of 2'-deoxyguanosine, was accumulated in the DNA of cells treated with photoirradiated TMPyP, whereas only small amounts were observed in ALA-treated cells in the presence of UVA light. TMPyP and UVA caused extensive damage at every guanine residue in DNA fragments obtained from the human p53 tumor suppressor gene and the c-Ha-ras-1 proto-oncogene, whereas PPIX induced little DNA damage under these conditions. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy using a singlet oxygen (1O2) probe and D2O showed that photoexcited TMPyP generated 1O2. These results suggest that photoexcited TMPyP reacts with oxygen to generate 1O2, which in turn, oxidizes guanine residues. Taken together, the results demonstrated that TMPyP was localized in the nucleus where it was photosensitized to induce DNA damage, suggesting that TMPyP may have clinical utility as a nucleus-targeted PDT.
Article: Enhanced anti-tumor activity of the photosensitizer Meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP) through encapsulation in antibody targeted chitosan/alginate nanoparticles.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP) is a photosensitizer that can be used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) to induce cell death through generation of reactive oxygen species in targeted tumor cells. However, TMP is highly hydrophilic and therefore its ability to accumulate intracellularly is limited. In this study, a strategy to improve TMP uptake into cells has been investigated by encapsulating the compound in a hydrogel-based chitosan/alginate nanoparticle formulation. Nanoparticles of 560 nm in diameter entrapping 9.1 μg of TMP per mg of formulation were produced and examined in cell-based assays. These particles were endocytosed into human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells and elicited a more potent photocytotoxic effect than free drug. Antibodies targeting death receptor 5 (DR5), a cell surface apoptosis-inducing receptor up-regulated in various types of cancer and found on HCT116 cells, were then conjugated onto the particles. The conjugated antibodies further enhanced uptake and cytotoxic potency of the nanoparticle. Taken together, these results show that antibody-conjugated chitosan/alginate nanoparticles significantly enhanced the therapeutic effectiveness of entrapped TMP. This novel approach provides a strategy for providing targeted site-specific delivery of TMP and other photosensitizer drugs to treat colorectal tumors using PDT.Biomacromolecules 01/2013; · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The survey focuses on recent aspects of photochemical reactions to cellular DNA that are implicated through the predominant formation of mostly bipyrimidine photoproducts in deleterious effects of human exposure to sunlight. Recent developments in analytical methods have allowed accurate and quantitative measurements of the main DNA photoproducts in cells and human skin. Highly mutagenic CC and CT bipyrimidine photoproducts, including cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs) are generated in low yields with respect to TT and TC photoproducts. Another striking finding deals with the formation of Dewar valence isomers, the third class of bipyrimidine photoproducts that is accounted for by UVA-mediated isomerization of initially UVB generated 6-4PPs. Cyclobutadithymine (T<>T) has been unambiguously shown to be involved in the genotoxicity of UVA radiation. Thus, T<>T is formed in UVA-irradiated cellular DNA according to a direct excitation mechanism with a higher efficiency than oxidatively generated DNA damage that arises mostly through the Type II photosensitization mechanism. C<>C and C<>T are repaired at rates intermediate between those of T<>T and 6-4TT. Evidence has been also provided for the occurrence of photosensitized reactions mediated by exogenous agents that act either in an independent way or through photodynamic effects.Photochemistry and Photobiology 07/2012; 88(5):1048-65. · 2.41 Impact Factor
Article: Bisquinolinium compounds induce quadruplex-specific transcriptome changes in HeLa S3 cell lines.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Guanosine rich sequences capable of forming G-quadruplex (G4) motifs are enriched near the gene transcription start site (TSS) in the human genome. When probed at the single gene level, G-quadruplex motifs residing in promoter regions show substantial effects on gene transcription. Moreover, further changes in transcription levels are noticed when G4-motifs are targeted with G-quadruplex-specific small molecules. Global studies concerning general changes of the transcriptome via targeting promoter-based G-quadruplex motifs are very limited and have so far only been carried out with compounds displaying weak selectivity for quadruplex sequences. Here we utilize two G-quadruplex-specific bisquinolinium derivatives PhenDC3 and 360A and investigate their effects on the expression of the HeLa S3 transcriptome. Our results show wide-spread changes in the transcriptome with specificity for genes with G-quadruplex motifs near their transcription start sites (TSS). Using real-time PCR we further confirmed the specificity of PhenDC3 and 360A as potent molecules to target G-quadruplex-regulated genes. Specific effects on quadruplex-containing genes have been observed utilizing whole-transcriptome analysis upon treatment of cultured cells with quadruplex-selective bisquinolinium compounds.BMC Research Notes 03/2012; 5:138.