Approaches for the measurement of solvent exposure in proteins by 19F NMR.
ABSTRACT Fluorine NMR is a useful tool to probe protein folding, conformation and local topology owing to the sensitivity of the chemical shift to the local electrostatic environment. As an example we make use of (19)F NMR and 3-fluorotyrosine to evaluate the conformation and topology of the tyrosine residues (Tyr-99 and Tyr-138) within the EF-hand motif of the C-terminal domain of calmodulin (CaM) in both the calcium-loaded and calcium-free states. We critically compare approaches to assess topology and solvent exposure via solvent isotope shifts, (19)F spin-lattice relaxation rates, (1)H-(19)F nuclear Overhauser effects, and paramagnetic shifts and relaxation rates from dissolved oxygen. Both the solvent isotope shifts and paramagnetic shifts from dissolved oxygen sensitively reflect solvent exposed surface areas.
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ABSTRACT: The complexity of Ca2+ cell signaling is dependent on a plethoria of Ca2+-binding proteins that respond to signals in different ranges of Ca2+ concentrations. Since the function of these proteins is directly coupled to their Ca2+-binding properties, there is a need for accurately determined equilibrium Ca2+-binding constants. In this work we outline the experimental techniques available to determine Ca2+-binding constants in proteins, derive the models used to describe the binding, and present CaLigator, software for least-square fitting directly to the measured quantity. The use of the software is illustrated for Ca2+-binding data obtained for two deamidated forms of calbindin D(9k), either an isospartate-56 (beta form) or a normal Asp-56 (alpha form). Here, the Ca2+-binding properties of the two isoforms have been studied using the chelator method. The alpha form shows similar Ca2+-binding properties to the wild type while the beta form has lost both cooperativety and affinity.Analytical Biochemistry 07/2002; 305(2):195-205. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of mammalian calmodulin has been refined at 2.2 A (1 A = 0.1 nm) resolution using a restrained least-squares method. The final crystallographic R-factor, based on 6685 reflections in the range 2.2 A less than or equal to d less than or equal to 5.0 A with intensities exceeding 2.5 sigma, is 0.175. Bond lengths and bond angles in the molecule have root-mean-square deviations from ideal values of 0.016 A and 1.7 degrees, respectively. The refined model includes residues 5 to 147, four Ca2+ and 69 water molecules per molecule of calmodulin. The electron density for residues 1 to 4 and 148 is poorly defined, and they are not included in the model. The molecule is shaped somewhat like a dumbbell, with an overall length of 65 A; the two lobes are connected by a seven-turn alpha-helix. Prominent secondary structural features include seven alpha-helices, four Ca2+-binding loops, and two short, double-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets between pairs of adjacent Ca2+-binding loops. The four Ca2+-binding domains in calmodulin have a typical EF hand conformation (helix-loop-helix) and are similar to those described in other Ca2+-binding proteins. The X-ray structure determination of calmodulin shows a large hydrophobic cleft in each half of the molecule. These hydrophobic regions probably represent the sites of interaction with many of the pharmacological agents known to bind to calmodulin.Journal of Molecular Biology 12/1988; 204(1):191-204. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A simple approach for detecting internal water molecules in proteins in solution is described. This approach combines 19F-detected heteronuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy (HOESY) with site-specific 19F substitution. The model system employed was intestinal fatty acid-binding protein complexed with [2-mono-19F]-palmitate. An intense cross peak was observed between the fluorine and a buried water molecule, as defined in the 1.98 A crystal structure of the complex. From HOESY spectra, the fluorine-water distance was estimated to be 2.1 A, in agreement with the crystal structure. This approach may be applicable to macromolecules that are too large for 1H-detected NMR methods.Journal of Biomolecular NMR 07/1995; 5(4):415-9. · 2.85 Impact Factor