Approaches for the measurement of solvent exposure in proteins by 19F NMR.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, UTM, 3359 Mississauga Rd, North Mississauga, ON, L5L 1C6, Canada.
Journal of Biomolecular NMR (Impact Factor: 3.31). 09/2009; 45(3):255-64. DOI: 10.1007/s10858-009-9359-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fluorine NMR is a useful tool to probe protein folding, conformation and local topology owing to the sensitivity of the chemical shift to the local electrostatic environment. As an example we make use of (19)F NMR and 3-fluorotyrosine to evaluate the conformation and topology of the tyrosine residues (Tyr-99 and Tyr-138) within the EF-hand motif of the C-terminal domain of calmodulin (CaM) in both the calcium-loaded and calcium-free states. We critically compare approaches to assess topology and solvent exposure via solvent isotope shifts, (19)F spin-lattice relaxation rates, (1)H-(19)F nuclear Overhauser effects, and paramagnetic shifts and relaxation rates from dissolved oxygen. Both the solvent isotope shifts and paramagnetic shifts from dissolved oxygen sensitively reflect solvent exposed surface areas.