The prognostic significance of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction: a literature-based meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT Heart failure (HF) with normal or preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (HFPEF) has been reported to be associated with similar outcome as HF with reduced EF (HFREF) in registry-based and epidemiological analyses, but many of these studies excluded patients who did not have EF measurements. Conversely, prior prospective studies have reported better outcome for patients with HFPEF. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies comparing all-cause mortality in patients with HFREF and HFPEF.
We searched several online databases for studies comparing outcome in HFREF and HFPEF, published before 2007. Inclusion criteria: prospective, clinical HF, near complete EF data, and mortality outcome. Review Manager version 4.2.3 software was used for the analysis. Overall, 24 501 patients [9299 deaths (38%)] from 17 studies are included. Average follow-up was 47 months; the HFPEF group was older (69 vs. 66 years) and more likely to be female (44% vs. 26%). Of the 7688 patients with HFPEF 2468 died (32.1%), compared with 6831 of the 16 813 patients with HFREF (40.6%): odds ratio 0.51 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.55).
This literature-based meta-analysis demonstrates that mortality among patients with HFPEF was half that observed in those with HFREF, in contrast to previous reports suggesting that mortality may be similar between both groups.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate if improved treatment of coronary heart disease and hypertension, the major causes of chronic heart failure (CHF), in the last 20 years has had an impact on the incidence of CHF and survival. National Swedish registers on hospital discharges and cause-specific deaths were used to calculate age- and sex-specific trends and sex ratios for heart failure admissions and deaths. The study included all men and women 45 to 84 years old hospitalized for the first time for heart failure in 19 Swedish counties between 1988 and 2000, a mean annual population 2.9 million. A total of 156?919 hospital discharges were included. In 1988, a total of 267 men and 205 women per 100?000 inhabitants (age adjusted) were discharged for the first time with a principal diagnosis of heart failure. After 1993 a yearly decrease was observed, with 237 men and 171 women per 100?000 inhabitants discharged during 2000. The 30-day mortality decreased significantly. The decrease in 1-year mortality was more pronounced in the younger age groups, with a total reduction in mortality of 69% among men and 80% among women aged 45-54 years. The annual decrease was 9% among men and 10% among women aged 45-54 years (95% CI -7% to -12% and -6% to -14% respectively) and 4% among men and 5% among women (95% CI -4% to -5% for both) aged 75-84 years. The decrease in incidence and improved prognosis after a first hospitalization for heart failure coincides with the establishment of ACE-inhibitor therapy, the introduction of beta-blockers for treatment of heart failure, home-care programmes for heart failure, and more effective treatment and prevention of underlying diseases. Notwithstanding, despite considerable improvement, 1-year mortality after a first hospitalization for heart failure is still high.European Heart Journal 03/2004; 25(4):300-7. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anemia has been shown to be a predictor of mortality in patients with heart failure and impaired left ventricular systolic function (ISF). Although heart failure in the setting of preserved systolic function (PSF) is an important clinical problem, the relationship between anemia and outcomes in patients with PSF has not been carefully evaluated. Patients undergoing diagnostic angiography from 1995 to 2003 with symptomatic heart failure (New York Heart Association class II or greater) were studied (N = 4951). Patients with primary valvular or congenital heart disease were excluded. Patients with ejection fraction < or = 0.40 (N = 1858) were considered the ISF group, and patients with ejection fraction > 0.40 (N = 3093) were classified as the PSF group. Anemia was defined by the World Health Organization criteria (hemoglobin < 13 g/dL for men and < 12 g/dL for women). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for baseline differences. The possibility of a differential effect of anemia by systolic function was tested using an interaction term in the multivariable model. Anemia was independently associated with adverse outcomes across the study cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.53, P < .0001). There was no interaction between anemia and systolic function (ISF vs PSF) in the multivariable model (P = .31 for interaction). The hazard ratio for anemia was 1.61 for PSF patients and 1.45 for ISF patients. Anemia is an independent predictor of mortality in heart failure, regardless of whether patients have preserved or impaired systolic function. This is the first report of an association between anemia and increased mortality in patients with heart failure and PSF. Future investigations of therapies for anemia in heart failure should consider including patients with PSF.American heart journal 02/2006; 151(2):457-62. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Data are limited regarding the classification and prognosis of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) in the community. Using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we evaluated all patients receiving a first diagnosis of CHF in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 1991 (n=216). Among these patients, 88% were >/=65 years and 49% were >/=80 years of age. The prognosis of patients with a new diagnosis of CHF was poor; survival was 86+/-2% at 3 months, 76+/-3% at 1 year, and 35+/-3% at 5 years. Of the 216 patients, 137 (63%) had an assessment of ejection fraction. In these patients, systolic function was preserved (ejection fraction >/=50%) in 59 (43%) and reduced (ejection fraction <50%) in 78 (57%). Survival adjusted for age, sex, NYHA class, and coronary artery disease was not significantly different between patients with preserved and those with reduced systolic function (relative risk, 0.80; P=0.369). ACE inhibitors were used in only 44% of the total population with CHF. The present study reports the clinical characteristics and natural history of CHF as it presents in the community in the vasodilator era. CHF is a disease of the "very elderly," frequently occurs in the setting of normal ejection fraction, and has a poor prognosis, regardless of the level of systolic function. Diagnostic and therapeutic methods are underused in the community.Circulation 12/1998; 98(21):2282-9. · 15.20 Impact Factor