Basic mechanisms for recognition and transport of synaptic cargos.

Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015GE, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Molecular Brain (Impact Factor: 4.2). 09/2009; 2:25. DOI: 10.1186/1756-6606-2-25
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Synaptic cargo trafficking is essential for synapse formation, function and plasticity. In order to transport synaptic cargo, such as synaptic vesicle precursors, mitochondria, neurotransmitter receptors and signaling proteins to their site of action, neurons make use of molecular motor proteins. These motors operate on the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton and are highly regulated so that different cargos can be transported to distinct synaptic specializations at both pre- and post-synaptic sites. How synaptic cargos achieve specificity, directionality and timing of transport is a developing area of investigation. Recent studies demonstrate that the docking of motors to their cargos is a key control point. Moreover, precise spatial and temporal regulation of motor-cargo interactions is important for transport specificity and cargo recruitment. Local signaling pathways Ca2+ influx, CaMKII signaling and Rab GTPase activity regulate motor activity and cargo release at synaptic locations. We discuss here how different motors recognize their synaptic cargo and how motor-cargo interactions are regulated by neuronal activity.

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    ABSTRACT: Cargo transport along microtubules is driven by the collective function of microtubule plus- and minus-end-directed motors (kinesins and dyneins). How the velocity of cargo transport is driven by opposing teams of motors is still poorly understood. Here, we combined inducible recruitment of motors and adaptors to Rab6 secretory vesicles with detailed tracking of vesicle movements to investigate how changes in the transport machinery affect vesicle motility. We find that the velocities of kinesin-based vesicle movements are slower and more homogeneous than those of dynein-based movements. We also find that Bicaudal D (BICD) adaptor proteins can regulate dynein-based vesicle motility. BICD-related protein 1 (BICDR-1) accelerates minus-end-directed vesicle movements and affects Rab6 vesicle distribution. These changes are accompanied by reduced axonal outgrowth in neurons, supporting their physiological importance. Our study suggests that adaptor proteins can modulate the velocity of dynein-based motility and thereby control the distribution of transport carriers.
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    Current opinion in neurobiology 04/2014; 27C:165-170. · 7.21 Impact Factor

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