Pediatric laparoscopic pyeloplasty: lessons learned from the first 52 cases.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware, USA.
Journal of endourology / Endourological Society (Impact Factor: 1.75). 09/2009; 23(8):1307-11. DOI: 10.1089/end.2009.0057
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The use of laparoscopy for pediatric pyeloplasty is increasing. We review our experience with our first 50 cases and describe the main technical points learned during this experience.
We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients who underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasties (LP) over a 4-year period (January 2004 to January 2008) at our institution. Patient demographics, operative details, hospital stay, outcomes, and complications were examined.
Fifty-two patients underwent LP from for primary repair of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Thirty-six male and 16 female were operated on at an average age and weight (range) of 51.8 months (3 weeks to 216 months) and 20 kg (3.9-74.2 kg), respectively. Intraoperatively, 47/52 (90%) underwent retrograde ureteropyelography (RUPG), and 51/52 (98%) had a ureteral stent placed during surgery. Nine crossing vessels (17%) were identified at the time of surgery. The anastomoses were performed with a running absorbable suture. Operative time was 248 min (range 120-693 min). The average hospital stay was 3 days (range 1-7). A bladder catheter usually remained indwelling for 2 days and a perirenal drain for 3 days; they were removed before hospital discharge. The stent remained in place on average 39 days (range 11-127 d) and was removed with the patient under a brief general anesthetic. Anastomotic patency was seen in 51/52 (98%) patients determined by improvement on postoperative renal ultrasonography and/or resolution of symptoms. Mean follow-up was 20 months (range 3-50 mos). Complications included recurrence of UPJO necessitating redo LP (1), dislodgement of a nephrostomy (1), stent replacement (1), ileus (2), and vascular injuries treated laparoscopically (2). No patients needed conversion to open surgery.
LP has supplanted open pyeloplasty at our institution. We have noted improved success by performing RUPG to define the anatomy and stent placement at the beginning of the case, using purple 5-0 or 6-0 poliglecaprone suture for the anastomosis and a 5-mm wide-angle lens for visualization. We found no disadvantages for the transperitoneal approach, although we find it necessary to leave a drain. With the increased use of LP in pediatric urology, we hope these observations from our experience will help improve the learning curve for others making this transition.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Open dismembered pyeloplasty according to Anderson-Hynes (AHP) is the gold standard treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children. However, during the last decade, the management has been revolutionized with introduction of laparoscopy and endourology yielding comparable results and less morbid outcomes. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2010, dismembered and non-dismembered retroperitoneoscopic pyeloplasty was performed in 41 children with a median age of 130 month (range 5-192). 20 children underwent a dismembered pyeloplasty (Anderson-Hynes) and 21 children were operated by a non-dismembered pyeloplasty (Y-V-Plasty). RESULTS: The mean operation time was 120 min (range 52-257). Intraoperative findings revealed in 29 cases a significant crossing vessel. Based on a furosemide nephrogram and subjective complaints, the success rate was 88 % with a median follow-up of 69 month (range 14-142). The 5 failures (2 Y-V-Plasty, 3 AHP) have been treated by open AHP (n = 2), Laser endopyelotomy (n = 2) and Lap-AHP (n = 1) without further problems. CONCLUSION: With increasing improvement of the suture techniques, the laparoscopic pyeloplasty represents in experienced hands an alternative method with comparable success rates to the open technique. In our opinion, retroperitoneoscopic pyeloplasty is technically possible and feasible even in infants. We found in our series no statistically significant difference between dismembered and non-dismembered pyeloplasty.
    World Journal of Urology 05/2012; · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To report clinical outcomes for laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) in children compared with open pyeloplasty (OP) and literature findings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective study, the outcomes of 57 consecutive transperitoneal LP in children from the age of 3 years were analyzed and compared with a matched historic control group of OP and with series of LP in the literature. Successful result was defined as resolution of symptoms, no conversion or re-operation, improved hydronephrosis, and/or improved renographic drainage. RESULTS: Mean operative time was 177 (SD 50.5)min in the LP group and 108 (SD 25.6)min in the OP group (p<0.001). Mean hospital stay was 1.2 (SD 0.46) days in the LP and 6.7 (SD 1.2) days in the OP group. Improvement in renographic drainage was observed more often after LP than after OP (98% vs 83%; p=0.010). A successful result was reported in 56 (98%) LP and 54 (95%) OP (p=0.298) patients. Our LP series demonstrates a high success rate compared to literature data. CONCLUSIONS: Our LP has a similar success rate and more often improved renographic drainage in comparison to OP. Furthermore, our LP demonstrates a shorter hospital stay and favorable outcomes compared to the literature. We thus regard LP as standard treatment for repair of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children from the age of 3 years.
    Journal of pediatric urology 02/2012; · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the last two decades, minimally invasive treatment options for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) have been developed and popularized. To critically analyze the current status of laparoscopic and robotic repair of UPJO. A systematic literature review was performed in November 2012 using PubMed. Article selection proceeded according to the search strategy based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses criteria. Multiple series of laparoscopic pyeloplasty have demonstrated high success rates and low perioperative morbidity in pediatric and adult populations, with both the transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches. Data on pediatric robot-assisted pyeloplasty are increasingly becoming available. A larger number of cases have also been reported for adult patients, confirming that robotic pyeloplasty represents a viable option for either primary or secondary repair. Robot-assisted redo pyeloplasty has been mostly described in the pediatric population. Different technical variations have been implemented with the aim of tailoring the procedure to each specific case. The type of stenting, retrograde versus antegrade, continues to be debated. Internal-external stenting as well as a stentless approach have been used, especially in the pediatric population. Comparative studies demonstrate similar success and complication rates between minimally invasive and open pyeloplasty in both the adult and pediatric setting. A clear advantage in terms of hospital stay for minimally invasive over open pyeloplasty was observed only in the adult population. Laparoscopy represents an efficient and effective less invasive alternative to open pyeloplasty. Robotic pyeloplasty is likely to emerge as the new minimally invasive standard of care whenever robotic technology is available because its precise suturing and shorter learning curve represent unique attractive features. For both laparoscopy and robotics, the technique can be tailored to the specific case according to intraoperative findings and personal surgical experience.
    European Urology 07/2013; · 10.48 Impact Factor