Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast.

Histopathology Department, Dubai Hospital, PO Box 7272, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine (Impact Factor: 2.88). 09/2009; 133(8):1335-8. DOI: 10.1043/1543-2165-133.8.1335
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is a relatively common lesion of the breast. In general, it is less commonly found as a clinically palpable mass and is more commonly found as incidental microscopic foci. It is a benign proliferative, probably neoplastic, hormonally driven process of the mammary stromal myofibroblasts. The clinical, radiologic, and cytologic findings can resemble those of fibroadenoma. Histologically, it can be confused with low-grade angiosarcoma. The exact etiology of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is still controversial, but a neoplastic process of the stromal myofibroblasts, with a hormonal stimulus in its development and progression, is the favored theory. Most lesions can be cured by complete surgical excision, and patients undergoing the excision have a good prognosis.

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    ABSTRACT: Male breast disease includes a variety of benign and malignant conditions, many of which are hormonally influenced. Gynecomastia and skin lesions account for the majority of conditions in symptomatic men with a palpable abnormality, and these conditions should be accurately recognized. Imaging patterns of gynecomastia include nodular, dendritic, and diffuse patterns. Histopathologically, the nodular and dendritic patterns correlate with the florid and quiescent (fibrotic) phases of gynecomastia, respectively. The diffuse pattern may have features of both phases and is associated with exposure to exogenous estrogen. Benign-appearing palpable masses in male patients should be approached cautiously, given the overlapping morphologic features of benign and malignant tumors. In addition to gynecomastia, other benign male breast tumors include lipoma, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, granular cell tumor, fibromatosis, myofibroblastoma, schwannoma, and hemangioma. Male breast cancer accounts for 1% of all breast carcinomas. Invasive ductal carcinoma accounts for the majority of cases in adult males and typically appears as a subareolar mass without calcifications that is eccentric to the nipple. Other epithelial and mesenchymal tumors that may occur, albeit not as commonly as in women, include papillary carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, liposarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma, pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor, basal cell carcinoma of the nipple, hematopoietic malignancies, and secondary tumors. Knowledge of the natural history, clinical characteristics, and imaging features of tumors that occur in the male breast will help narrow the radiologic differential diagnosis and optimize treatment.
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a rare benign proliferation of breast stromal cells with a complex pattern of interanastomosing spaces lined by myofibroblasts. The exact etiology is still unknown, but a proliferative response of myofibroblasts to hormonal stimuli has been postulated. PASH is a relatively common incidental finding in breast tissue removed for other reasons and rarely manifests as a localized mass. Fewer than 150 cases of tumoral PASH have been reported since it was first described in 1986. Although PASH tends to grow over time, most lesions are cured by surgical excision and the prognosis is excellent. We report an unusual case of bilateral axillary tumoral PASH in a 44-year-old man. Awareness of this disease is important when considering the differential diagnosis of axillary masses. To our knowledge, only one other case of unilateral axillary tumoral PASH in a male patient has been described in English and this is the first case of PASH occurring in male bilateral axillary gynecomastia.
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