Essential oils are complex natural mixtures, their main constituents, e.g. terpenes and phenylpropanoids, being responsible for their biological properties. Essential oils from eucalyptus, tea tree and thyme and their major monoterpene compounds alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-pinene, p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpineol, thymol, citral and 1,8-cineole were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. These essential oils were able to reduce viral infectivity by >96%, the monoterpenes inhibited HSV by about >80%. The mode of antiviral action has been determined, only moderate antiviral effects were revealed by essential oils and monoterpenes when these drugs were added to host cells prior to infection or after entry of HSV into cells. However, both essential oils and monoterpenes exhibited high anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles thereby inactivating viral infection. Among the analysed compounds, monoterpene hydrocarbons were slightly superior to monoterpene alcohols in their antiviral activity, alpha-pinene and alpha-terpineol revealed the highest selectivity index. However, mixtures of different monoterpenes present in natural tea tree essential oil revealed a ten-fold higher selectivity index and a lower toxicity than its isolated single monoterpenes.
"Natural compounds, including monoterpenoids, are a promising source of new antiviral compounds  . Оxygen-containing monoterpenes with a para-menthane framework showed significant activity against the influenza virus . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new class of compounds featuring a camphor moiety has been discovered that exhibits potent inhibitory activity against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H5N1) viruses. The synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic analysis; in addition the structures of compound 2 and 14 were elucidated by the X-ray diffraction technique. Structure-activity relationship studies have been conducted to identify the 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptanes2-ylidene group as the key functional group responsible for the observed antiviral activity. The most potent antiviral compound is imine 2 with therapeutic index more than 500.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2015; 105:263-273. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.10.010 · 3.45 Impact Factor
"The volatile oil components of EOs are chemically derived from terpenes, and their oxygenated derivatives , terpenoids, which are aromatic and aliphatic acid esters and phenolic compounds (Solórzano-Santos and Miranda-Novales, 2012). Worldwide, EOs have been considered as alternatives to treat infectious diseases and agents and several EOs have documented to possess pharmacologically important activities like antibacterial, antifungal (Freires et al., 2014; Zeidán-Chuliá et al., 2014; Joycharat et al., 2014; Khan et al., 2012; Safaei-Ghomi and Ahd, 2010) and antiviral (Astani et al., 2010) properties. Unlike conventional antibiotics that target a single pathway, EOs target several processes in a microbial cell because of the heterogeneous groups of chemical compounds present in them. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the influence of marshmallow extract administration (Althaea officinalis L.) at 0.0 (control), 2.5, 5, and 10 g on the activity of certain hepatopancreatic enzymes such as α-amylase, lipase and trypsin in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during 60 days. Feeding the fish with diets enriched with marshmallow extract had no effects on the satiety index and hepatic index in these fish. α-Amylase and lipase significantly decreased (P<0.05) in fish fed 10 g marshmallow extract compared with the control group. Although amylase was significantly (P<0.05) elevated on day 30 in the fish fed with 5 g marshmallow extract, trypsin level indicated a significant decrease (P<0.05). Administration of marshmallow extract decreased pancreatic lipase on day 30 of the experiment. No significant change (P>0.05) was observed in pancreatic trypsin in the control or experimental groups on day 60, but the level of pancreatic α-amylase was higher in fish fed with 2.5 g marshmallow extract compared with the control group. In conclusion, the increase of pancreatic α-amylase may be attributed to the polysaccharide compounds found in marshmallow extract. Finally, marshmallow extract may decrease lipase but it does not affect trypsin level.
Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology 01/2015; 4(4):52-41.
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