Fibrates may cause an abnormal urinary betaine loss which is associated with elevations in plasma homocysteine.
ABSTRACT Betaine is an osmolyte, supplies methyl groups, and controls plasma homocysteine. Abnormal urinary loss of betaine is common in patients with the metabolic syndrome or diabetes mellitus. These patients are often treated with fibrates which alter renal function and raise plasma homocysteine concentrations. We suggest there is a connection between fibrate treatment and betaine excretion.
We identified 32 fibrate-treated patients in several studies (total of 740 subjects) and compared the betaine excretion by these with the excretion by other patients, both in the separate studies and in the combined group. We investigated the correlation of betaine excretion with homocysteine in these groups.
Patients taking bezafibrate had higher betaine excretion than patients not taking fibrates, p < 0.00001 in some studies with n < 10. Of 32 patients taking bezafibrate, 20 had abnormal (>97.5 %-ile) betaine excretion. Plasma homocysteine correlated positively with betaine excretion in male patients with lipid disorders who were not taking fibrate (n = 68, p = 0.043), but the relationship was stronger if patients taking bezafibrate were included (n = 76, p < 0.00001). In elderly (>65 years) subjects with hypertension there was a similar correlation (n = 19, p = 0.047), which was stronger when a subject taking bezafibrate was included (n = 20, p = 0.013).
Abnormal betaine excretion is common in patients treated with bezafibrate. Bezafibrate appears to exacerbate betaine loss, which will cause a rise in plasma homocysteine. Betaine supplementation could be considered in conjunction with fibrate therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Abnormal urinary excretion of betaine has been demonstrated in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. We aimed to identify the main predictors of excretion in cardiovascular patients and to make initial assessment of its feasibility as a risk marker of future diabetes development. We used data from 2396 patients participating in the Western Norway B-vitamin Intervention Trial, who delivered urine and blood samples at baseline, and in the majority at two visits during follow-up of median 39 months. Betaine in urine and plasma were measured by liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The strongest determinants of urinary betaine excretion by multiple regression were diabetes mellitus, age and estimated glomerular filtration rate; all p<0.001. Patients with diabetes mellitus (n = 264) had a median excretion more than three times higher than those without. We found a distinct non-linear association between urinary betaine excretion and glycated hemoglobin, with a break-point at 6.5%, and glycated hemoglobin was the strongest determinant of betaine excretion in patients with diabetes mellitus. The discriminatory power for diabetes mellitus corresponded to an area under the curve by receiver-operating characteristics of 0.82, and betaine excretion had a coefficient of reliability of 0.73. We also found a significant, independent log-linear relation between baseline betaine excretion and the risk of developing new diabetes during follow-up. The good discriminatory power for diabetes, high test-retest stability and independent association with future risk of new diabetes should motivate further investigation on the role of betaine excretion in risk assessment and long-term follow-up of diabetes mellitus.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e69454. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Few modifiable risk factors are known to be associated with the presence and progression of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). MATERIAL AND METHOD: We have analyzed in 405 type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects (169 women) the association of plasma homocysteine with the presence of DPN measured with the Semmes-Weinstein (SW) monofilament test. A score below 4 was considered an altered SW monofilament test. Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B(12) and folic acid were measured using standard procedures (ELISA). RESULTS: Patients with T2DM with altered SW test have significantly higher age, evolution of disease, HbA(1c) and lower creatinine clearance values. In addition, plasma homocysteine values were independently and significantly higher in T2DM with DPN measured as altered SW test (13.64±4.93 vs. 12.22±4.48μmol/l, P<.01) with similar vitamin B(12) and folic acid values comparing the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Plasma homocysteine and HbA(1c) values are the 2 modifiable biological factors associated with the presence of DPN evaluated as an altered SW monofilament test in T2DM subjects.Medicina Clínica 01/2013; · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Betaine deficiency is a probable cardiovascular risk factor and a cause of elevated homocysteine. Urinary betaine excretion is increased by fibrate treatment, and is also often elevated in diabetes. Does fibrate further increase betaine excretion in diabetes, and does it affect the plasma concentrations and excretions of related metabolites and of other osmolytes?Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 07/2014; · 2.67 Impact Factor