Diketopiperazine Alkaloids from a Deep Ocean Sediment Derived Fungus Penicillium sp.

Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Chinese Ministry of Education, Institute of Marine Drugs and Food, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, P.R. China.
CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN (Impact Factor: 1.16). 09/2009; 57(8):873-6. DOI: 10.1248/cpb.57.873
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Five new diketopiperazine alkaloids, brevicompanines D-H (3-7), together with two known analogs, allo-brevicompanine B (1) and fructigenine B (2), were isolated from a deep ocean sediment derived fungus Penicillium sp. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR and chiral HPLC analysis. Compounds 4 and 7 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production in BV2 microglial cells.

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    • "(Johnson et al. 1951), fungi, e.g., Alternaria alternata (Stierle et al. 1988) and Penicillium sp. (Du et al. 2009), and sponges, for example, Dysidea fragilis (Su et al. 1993). They were identified in mammals, e.g., in rat and monkey brains, human central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract and blood (Prasad 1988). "
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    ABSTRACT: Diketopiperazines (DKPs) are cyclic dipeptides, representing an abundant class of biologically active natural compounds. Despite their widespread occurrence in nature, little is known about their degradation. In this study, the enzymatical and microbial cleavage of DKPs was investigated. Peptidase catalyzed hydrolysis of certain DKPs was formerly reported, but could not be confirmed in this study. While testing additional peptidases and DKPs no degradation was detected, indicating peptidase stability of the peptide bond in cyclic dipeptides. Besides confirmation of the reported degradation of cyclo(l-Asp-l-Phe) by Paenibacillus chibensis (DSM 329) and Streptomyces flavovirens (DSM 40062), cleavage of cyclo(l-Asp-l-Asp) by DSM 329 was detected. Other DKPs were not hydrolyzed by both strains, demonstrating high substrate specificity. The degradation of cyclo(l-Asp-l-Phe) by DSM 40062 was shown to be inducible. Three strains, which are able to hydrolyze hydantoins and dihydropyrimidines, were identified for the degradation of DKPs: Leifsonia sp. K3 (DSM 27212) and Bacillus sp. A16 (DSM 25052) cleaved cyclo(dl-Ala-dl-Ala) and cyclo(l-Gly-l-Phe), and Rhizobium sp. NA04-01 (DSM 24917) degraded cyclo(l-Asp-l-Phe), cyclo(l-Gly-l-Phe) and cyclo(l-Asp-l-Asp). The first enantioselective cleavage of cyclo(dl-Ala-dl-Ala) was detected with the newly isolated strains Paenibacillus sp. 32A (DSM 27214) and Microbacterium sp. 40A (DSM 27211). Cyclo(l-Ala-d-Ala) and cyclo(l-Ala-l-Ala) were completely degraded, whereas the enantiomer cyclo(d-Ala-d-Ala) was not attacked. Altogether, five bacterial strains were newly identified for the cleavage of DKPs. These bacteria may be of value for industrial purposes, such as degradation of undesirable DKPs in food and drugs and production of (enantiopure) dipeptides and amino acids.
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines by activated microglia can cause neurotoxicity in neurodegenerative diseases. We found that Brevicompanine E (BE), isolated from a deep ocean sediment derived fungus Penicillium sp., inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) production in microglia. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that BE attenuated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity in LPS-induced microglia. Consistent with this finding, BE inhibited LPS-induced IkappaBalpha degradation, NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, and also Akt, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Thus, BE may be potentially useful for modulating neuroinflammation.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 10/2009; 216(1-2):32-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2009.09.004 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 41(2). DOI:10.1002/chin.201002208
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