Correlation between hemichrome stability and the root effect in tetrameric hemoglobins.
ABSTRACT Oxidation of Hbs leads to the formation of different forms of Fe(III) that are relevant to a range of biochemical and physiological functions. Here we report a combined EPR/x-ray crystallography study performed at acidic pH on six ferric tetrameric Hbs. Five of the Hbs were isolated from the high-Antarctic notothenioid fishes Trematomus bernacchii, Trematomus newnesi, and Gymnodraco acuticeps, and one was isolated from the sub-Antarctic notothenioid Cottoperca gobio. Our EPR analysis reveals that 1), in all of these Hbs, at acidic pH the aquomet form and two hemichromes coexist; and 2), only in the three Hbs that exhibit the Root effect is a significant amount of the pentacoordinate (5C) high-spin Fe(III) form found. The crystal structure at acidic pH of the ferric form of the Root-effect Hb from T. bernacchii is also reported at 1.7 A resolution. This structure reveals a 5C state of the heme iron for both the alpha- and beta-chains within a T quaternary structure. Altogether, the spectroscopic and crystallographic results indicate that the Root effect and hemichrome stability at acidic pH are correlated in tetrameric Hbs. Furthermore, Antarctic fish Hbs exhibit higher peroxidase activity than mammalian and temperate fish Hbs, suggesting that a partial hemichrome state in tetrameric Hbs, unlike in monomeric Hbs, does not remove the need for protection from peroxide attack, in contrast to previous results from monomeric Hbs.
Article: Hemoglobin structure/function and globin-gene evolution in the Arctic fish Liparis tunicatus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The importance of the Arctic, in contributing to the knowledge of the overall ensemble of adaptive processes influencing the evolution of marine organisms, calls for investigations on molecular adaptations in Arctic fish. Unlike the vast majority of Antarctic Notothenioidei, several Arctic species display high hemoglobin multiplicity. The blood of four species, the spotted wolffish of the family Anarhichadidae and three Gadidae, contains three functionally distinct major components. Similar to many Antarctic notothenioids, Arctic Liparis tunicatus (suborder Cottoidei, family Liparidae) has one major hemoglobin (Hb 1) accompanied by a minor component (Hb 2). This paper reports the structural and functional characterisation of Hb 1 of L. tunicatus. This hemoglobin shows low oxygen affinity, and pronounced Bohr and Root effects. The amino-acid sequence of the beta chain displays an unusual substitution in NA2 (beta2) at the phosphate-binding site, and the replacement of Val E11 (beta67) with Ile. Similar to some Antarctic fish Hbs, electron paramagnetic resonance spectra reveal the formation of a ferric penta-coordinated species even at physiological pH. The amino-acid sequences have also been used to gain insight into the evolutionary history of globins of polar fish. L. tunicatus globins appear close to the notothenioid clades as predicted by teleostean phylogenies. Close phylogenetic relationships between Cottoidei and Notothenioidei, together with their life style, seem to be the main factor driving the globin-sequence evolution.Gene 01/2008; 406(1-2):58-68. · 2.34 Impact Factor
Article: The influence of X-rays on the structural studies of peroxide-derived myoglobin intermediates.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In recent years, the awareness of potential radiation damage of metal centers in protein crystals during crystallographic data collection has received increasing attention. The radiation damage can lead to radiation-induced changes and reduction of the metal sites. One of the research fields where these concerns have been comprehensively addressed is the study of the reaction intermediates of the heme peroxidase and oxygenase reaction cycles. For both the resting states and the high-valent intermediates, the X-rays used in the structure determination have given undesired side effects through radiation-induced changes to the trapped intermediates. However, X-rays have been used to generate and trap the peroxy/hydroperoxy state in crystals. In this review, the structural work and the influence of X-rays on these intermediates in myoglobin are summarized and viewed in light of analogous studies on similar intermediates in peroxidases and oxygenases.Chemistry & Biodiversity 11/2008; 5(10):2067-89. · 1.80 Impact Factor