Mitochondrial turnover and aging of long-lived postmitotic cells: the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory of aging.

Department of Clinical Pathology and Cytology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling (Impact Factor: 8.2). 09/2009; 12(4):503-35. DOI: 10.1089/ars.2009.2598
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It is now generally accepted that aging and eventual death of multicellular organisms is to a large extent related to macromolecular damage by mitochondrially produced reactive oxygen species, mostly affecting long-lived postmitotic cells, such as neurons and cardiac myocytes. These cells are rarely or not at all replaced during life and can be as old as the whole organism. The inherent inability of autophagy and other cellular-degradation mechanisms to remove damaged structures completely results in the progressive accumulation of garbage, including cytosolic protein aggregates, defective mitochondria, and lipofuscin, an intralysosomal indigestible material. In this review, we stress the importance of crosstalk between mitochondria and lysosomes in aging. The slow accumulation of lipofuscin within lysosomes seems to depress autophagy, resulting in reduced turnover of effective mitochondria. The latter not only are functionally deficient but also produce increased amounts of reactive oxygen species, prompting lipofuscinogenesis. Moreover, defective and enlarged mitochondria are poorly autophagocytosed and constitute a growing population of badly functioning organelles that do not fuse and exchange their contents with normal mitochondria. The progress of these changes seems to result in enhanced oxidative stress, decreased ATP production, and collapse of the cellular catabolic machinery, which eventually is incompatible with survival.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the interrelationship between ageing and autophagy. There is a striking similarity between the signalling aspects of these two processes. Both ageing and autophagy involve several of the signalling components such as insulin/IGF-1, AMPK, Ras-cAMP-PKA, Sch9 and mTOR. Ageing and ageing-mediated defective autophagy involve accumulation of lipofuscin. Components of anti-ageing and autophagy include SirTs and FoxOs. Nutritional deprivation or calorie restriction as well as several nutriceuticals including resveratrol, spermidine, curcumin and piperine can enhance autophagy and increase lifespan. Such striking similarities indicate that lifespan is strongly dependent on autophagy.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 11/2010; 14(11):2543-51. · 4.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lipid peroxidation (LPO) product accumulation in human tissues is a major cause of tissular and cellular dysfunction that plays a major role in ageing and most age-related and oxidative stress-related diseases. The current evidence for the implication of LPO in pathological processes is discussed in this review. New data and literature review are provided evaluating the role of LPO in the pathophysiology of ageing and classically oxidative stress-linked diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes and atherosclerosis (the main cause of cardiovascular complications). Striking evidences implicating LPO in foetal vascular dysfunction occurring in pre-eclampsia, in renal and liver diseases, as well as their role as cause and consequence to cancer development are addressed.
    Free Radical Research 10/2010; 44(10):1125-71. · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Progressive accumulation of defective mitochondria is a common feature of aged cells. SIRT3 is a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase that regulates mitochondrial function and metabolism in response to caloric restriction and stress. FOXO3 is a direct target of SIRT3 and functions as a forkhead transcription factor to govern diverse cellular responses to stress. Here we showed that hydrogen peroxide induces SIRT3 to deacetylate FOXO3 at K271 and K290, followed by the upregulation of a set of genes that are essential for mitochondrial homeostasis (mitochondrial biogenesis, fission/fusion and mitophagy). Consequently, SIRT3-mediated deacetylation of FOXO3 modulates mitochondrial mass, ATP production and clearance of defective mitochondria. Thus, mitochondrial quantity and quality are ensured to maintain mitochondrial reserve capacity in response to oxidative damage. Maladaptation to oxidative stress is a major risk factor underlying aging and many aging-related diseases. Hence, our finding that SIRT3 deacetylates FOXO3 to protect mitochondria against oxidative stress provides a possible direction for aging-delaying therapies and disease intervention.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor


Available from