Morphine glucuronidation in preterm neonates, infants and children younger than 3 years.
ABSTRACT A considerable amount of drug use in children is still unlicensed or off-label. In order to derive rational dosing schemes, the influence of aging on glucuronidation capacity in newborns, including preterms, infants and children under the age of 3 years was studied using morphine and its major metabolites as a model drug.
A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with the nonlinear mixed-effects modelling software NONMEM V, on the basis of 2159 concentrations of morphine and its glucuronides from 248 infants receiving intravenous morphine ranging in bodyweight from 500 g to 18 kg (median 2.8 kg). The model was internally validated using normalized prediction distribution errors.
Formation clearances of morphine to its glucuronides and elimination clearances of the glucuronides were found to be primarily influenced by bodyweight, which was parameterized using an allometric equation with an estimated exponential scaling factor of 1.44. Additionally, a postnatal age of less than 10 days was identified as a covariate for formation clearance to the glucuronides, independent of birthweight or postmenstrual age. Distribution volumes scaled linearly with bodyweight.
Model-based simulations show that in newborns, including preterms, infants and children under the age of 3 years, a loading dose in microg/kg and a maintenance dose expressed in microg/kg1.5/h, with a 50% reduction of the maintenance dose in newborns younger than 10 days, results in a narrow range of morphine and metabolite serum concentrations throughout the studied age range. Future pharmacodynamic investigations are needed to reveal target concentrations in this population, after which final dosing recommendations can be made.
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ABSTRACT: From a previously validated paediatric population pharmacokinetic model, it was derived that non-linear morphine maintenance doses of 5 μg/kg(1.5)/h, with a 50 % dose reduction in neonates with a postnatal age (PNA) <10 days, yield similar morphine and metabolite concentrations across patients younger than 3 years. Compared with traditional dosing, this model-derived dosing regimen yields significantly reduced doses in neonates aged <10 days. Concentration predictions of the population model were prospectively evaluated in postoperative term neonates and infants up to the age of 1 year who received morphine doses according to the model-derived algorithm. The efficacy of this dosing algorithm was evaluated using morphine rescue medication and actual average infusion rates. Morphine and metabolite concentrations were accurately predicted by the paediatric pharmacokinetic morphine model. With regard to efficacy, 5 out of 18 neonates (27.8 %) with a PNA of <10 days needed rescue medication versus 18 of the 20 older patients (90 %) (p = 0.06). The median (interquartile range [IQR]) total morphine rescue dose was 0 (0-20) μg/kg in younger patients versus 193 (19-362) μg/kg in older patients (p = 0.003). The median (IQR) actual average morphine infusion rate was 4.4 (4.0-4.8) μg/kg/h in younger patients versus 14.4 (11.3-23.4) μg/kg/h in older patients (p < 0.001). Morphine paediatric dosing algorithms corrected for pharmacokinetic differences alone yield effective doses that prevent over-dosing for neonates with a PNA <10 days. The fact that many neonates and infants with a PNA ≥10 days still required rescue medication warrants pharmacodynamic studies to further optimize the dosing algorithm for these patients.Clinical Pharmacokinetics 02/2014; · 5.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral baclofen and assess impact of patient-specific covariates in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to support its clinical use. Subjects design Children (2-17 years of age) with CP received a dose of titrated oral baclofen from 2.5 mg 3 times a day to a maximum tolerated dose of up to 20 mg 4 times a day. PK sampling followed titration of 10-12 weeks. Serial R- and S-baclofen plasma concentrations were measured for up to 16 hours in 49 subjects. Population PK modeling was performed using NONMEM 7.1 (ICON PLC; Ellicott City, Maryland). Results R- and S-baclofen showed identical concentration-time profiles. Both baclofen enantiomers exhibited linear and dose/kg-proportional PK, and no sex differences were observed. Average baclofen terminal half-life was 4.5 hours. A 2-compartment PK model with linear elimination and transit absorption steps adequately described concentration-time profiles of both baclofen enantiomers. The mean population estimate of apparent clearance/F was 0.273 L/h/kg with 33.4% inter-individual variability (IIV), and the apparent volume of distribution (Vss/F) was 1.16 L/kg with 43.9% IIV. Delayed absorption was expressed by a mean transit time of 0.389 hours with 83.7% IIV. Body weight, a possible genetic factor, and age were determinants of apparent clearance in these children. Conclusion The PK of oral baclofen exhibited dose-proportionality and were adequately described by a 2-compartment model. Our population PK findings suggest that baclofen dosage can be based on body weight (2 mg/kg per day) and the current baclofen dose escalation strategy is appropriate in the treatment of children with CP older than 2 years of age.The Journal of pediatrics 05/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is responsible for the elimination of a large number of water-soluble drugs, the aim of this study was to develop a semi-physiological function for GFR maturation from neonates to adults. In the pharmacokinetic analysis (NONMEM VI) based on data of gentamicin, tobramycin and vancomycin collected in 1,760 patients (age 1 day-18 years, bodyweight 415 g-85 kg), a distinction was made between drug-specific and system-specific information. Since the maturational model for clearance is considered to contain system-specific information on the developmental changes in GFR, one GFR maturational function was derived for all three drugs. Simultaneous analysis of these three drugs showed that maturation of GFR mediated clearance from preterm neonates to adults was best described by a bodyweight-dependent exponent (BDE) function with an exponent varying from 1.4 in neonates to 1.0 in adults (ClGFR = Cldrug*(BW/4 kg)(BDE) with BDE = 2.23*BW(-0.065)). Population clearance values (Cldrug) for gentamicin, tobramycin and vancomycin were 0.21, 0.28 and 0.39 L/h for a full term neonate of 4 kg, respectively. Based on an integrated analysis of gentamicin, tobramycin and vancomycin, a semi-physiological function for GFR mediated clearance was derived that can potentially be used to establish evidence based dosing regimens of renally excreted drugs in children.Pharmaceutical Research 05/2014; · 4.74 Impact Factor