Four new fatty acid esters from the Feces of Trogopterus xanthipes.
ABSTRACT Four new fatty acid esters have been isolated from Feces Trogopterus. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods to be bis(7-hydroxyheptyl) icosanedioate (1), bis(7-hydroxyheptyl) heptadecanedioate (2), bis(7-hydroxyheptyl) decanedioate (3), and bis(7-hydroxyheptyl) octanedioate (4). In the anticoagulative assay, compounds 3 and 4 had significant antithrombin activity.
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ABSTRACT: Policosanol is a natural substance derived from sugar cane that is advertised for its lipid-lowering effects as a nonprescription drug. More than 80 placebo-controlled or comparative trials, performed mostly by a single research institute, suggest that policosanol at doses of 5 to 40 mg/d has lipoprotein-lowering effects comparable with statins. To determine the lipoprotein-lowering effects of Cuban sugar cane-derived policosanol and to establish, if effective, dose-dependency up to 80 mg/d in patients with hypercholesterolemia or combined hyperlipidemia. A multicenter (lipid outpatient clinics and general practitioners in Germany), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial conducted from September 29, 2000, to May 10, 2001, of patients with hypercholesterolemia or combined hyperlipidemia having baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of at least 150 mg/dL (> or =3.88 mmol/L) and either no or 1 cardiovascular risk factor other than known coronary heart disease, or baseline LDL-C levels of between 150 and 189 mg/dL (3.88-4.89 mmol/L) and 2 or more risk factors. Open-label 6-week placebo and diet run-in phase followed by a double-blind 12-week treatment phase after randomization to 5 groups: 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/d of policosanol or placebo. The percentage change of LDL-C, with changes in other lipoproteins as secondary outcome measures. A total of 143 patients were randomized to 5 equal groups and were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. In none of the 5 treatment groups did LDL-C levels decrease more than 10% from baseline. No statistically significant difference between policosanol and placebo was observed. A nonparametric test analyzing dose-dependency yielded nonsignificant results. In none of the secondary outcome measures, namely total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), and ratio of total or LDL-C to HDL-C, were there any significant effects of policosanol. Policosanol was tolerated well without serious adverse events. In patients with hypercholesterolemia or combined hyperlipidemia, the sugar cane-derived policosanol in usual and high doses does not demonstrate a reduction in lipid levels beyond placebo. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00288483.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2006; 295(19):2262-9. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study addressed two questions: 1) whether a relatively low dose of n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (n-3 FAs) administered to healthy volunteers for a prolonged period of time would exert beneficial effects on plasma lipids, platelet function, and thromboxane biosynthesis; and 2) whether a short-term loading treatment (6 wk) with 6 g n-3 FAs/d followed by 12 wk with 3 g/d results in more pronounced effects. After 6 wk treatment a reduction of plasma triglyceride concentration and an accumulation of EPA and DHA in plasma were observed. A longer period of treatment with n-3 FAs was necessary to affect platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 biosynthesis. At 12 and 18 wk, platelet aggregation, thromboxane A2 formation, and the excretion of thromboxane metabolites in urine were reduced, particularly in subjects who received 6 g n-3 FAs/d during the initial 6 wk. After treatment ended, triglyceride and thromboxane A2 biosynthesis returned to baseline values within 4 wk, whereas platelet aggregation remained impaired for > or = 14 wk. The longlasting impairment in platelet aggregation was accompanied by the retention of n-3 FAs in platelet phospholipids.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 04/1995; 61(3):607-13. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Simple and efficient methods for the synthesis of lipidic amino alcohols and diamines are described in this paper. Lipidic 2-amino alcohols and 1,3-diamines can be synthesized starting from synthetic lipidic α-amino acids. Alternatively, commercially available lipidic 1,2-diols may be used as starting material for the synthesis of 2-amino alcohols. Initial experiments on the in vivo antiinflammatory activity of the compounds synthesized gave promising results.Lipids 01/1999; 34(3):307-311. · 2.56 Impact Factor