Identification of human cathepsin G as a functional target of boswellic acids from the anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense.
ABSTRACT Frankincense preparations, used in folk medicine to cure inflammatory diseases, showed anti-inflammatory effectiveness in animal models and clinical trials. Boswellic acids (BAs) constitute major pharmacological principles of frankincense, but their targets and the underlying molecular modes of action are still unclear. Using a BA-affinity Sepharose matrix, a 26-kDa protein was selectively precipitated from human neutrophils and identified as the lysosomal protease cathepsin G (catG) by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and by immunological analysis. In rigid automated molecular docking experiments BAs tightly bound to the active center of catG, occupying the same part of the binding site as the synthetic catG inhibitor JNJ-10311795 (2-[3-[methyl[1-(2-naphthoyl)piperidin-4-yl]amino]carbonyl)-2-naphthyl]-1-(1-naphthyl)-2-oxoethylphosphonic acid). BAs potently suppressed the proteolytic activity of catG (IC(50) of approximately 600 nM) in a competitive and reversible manner. Related serine proteases were significantly less sensitive against BAs (leukocyte elastase, chymotrypsin, proteinase-3) or not affected (tryptase, chymase). BAs inhibited chemoinvasion but not chemotaxis of challenged neutrophils, and they suppressed Ca(2+) mobilization in human platelets induced by isolated catG or by catG released from activated neutrophils. Finally, oral administration of defined frankincense extracts significantly reduced catG activities in human blood ex vivo vs placebo. In conclusion, we show that catG is a functional and pharmacologically relevant target of BAs, and interference with catG could explain some of the anti-inflammatory properties of frankincense.
- The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12/2011; 52(10):1592-600. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the genome of Bacillus megaterium DSM319, a strain who has recently been sequenced to fully exploit its potential for biotechnological purposes, we identified a gene encoding the cytochrome P450 CYP106A1 as well as genes encoding potential redox partners of CYP106A1. We cloned, expressed, and purified CYP106A1 and five potential autologous redox partners, one flavodoxin and four ferredoxins. The flavodoxin and three ferredoxins were able to support the activity of CYP106A1 displaying the first cloned natural redox partners of a cytochrome P450 from B. megaterium. The CYP106A1 system was able to convert the pentacyclic triterpene 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA) belonging to the main bioactive constituents of Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts, which are used to treat inflammatory disorders and arthritic diseases. In order to provide sufficient amounts of the KBA products to characterize them structurally by NMR spectroscopy, recombinant whole-cell biocatalysts were constructed based on B. megaterium MS941. The main product has been identified as 7β-hydroxy-KBA, while the side product (∼20 %) was shown to be a mixture of 7β,15α-dihydroxy-KBA and 15α-hydroxy-KBA. Without further optimization 560.7 mg l(-1) day(-1) of the main product, 7β-hydroxy-KBA, could be obtained thus providing a suitable starting point for the efficient production of modified KBA by chemical tailoring to produce novel KBA derivatives with increased bioavailability and this way more efficient drugs.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 06/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Modulators of the arachidonic acid cascade have been in the focus of research for treatments of inflammation and pain for several decades. Targeting of this complex pathway experiences a paradigm change towards the design and development of multi-target inhibitors, exhibiting improved efficacy and less undesired side effects. This MiniReview summarises recent developments in the field of designed multi-target ligands of the arachidonic acid cascade. In addition to the well-known dual inhibitors of the 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 like licofelone, very recent developments are discussed. Especially, multi-target inhibitors interfering with the cytochrome P450 pathway via inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase seem to offer a novel opportunity for development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 09/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor