Pediatric CPR quality monitoring: Analysis of thoracic anthropometric data
ABSTRACT Quantitative CPR quality feedback systems improve adult CPR performance. Extension to pediatric patients is desirable; however, the anthropometric measurements of the pediatric chest pertinent to guide the development of pediatric-specific CPR monitoring systems are largely unknown.
Adult-based CPR quality monitoring and feedback systems will require pediatric-specific tailoring and adaptation.
Anthropometric measurements pertinent to the development of pediatric-specific CPR quality monitoring systems were obtained in 150 children ages 6 months to 8 years. Standard descriptive statistics were calculated. Absolute depth point estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the American Heart Association (AHA) chest compression depth recommendations (1/3 and 1/2 Anterior-Posterior chest depth). Percentage of subjects for which the adult minimal feedback depth of 38mm would coach to achieve pediatric AHA target depths was determined.
Point estimate averages for measurements pertinent to pediatric adaptation of CPR monitoring technology were: sternal width: 25.1mm [22.0-29.2]; sternal length: 98.7mm [95.3-102.1]; internipple distance: 120.0mm [117.2-122.8]; chin to sternal notch: 35.3mm [31.2-39.4]; 1/3 AP chest depth: 37.0mm [36.1-37.8]; and 1/2 AP chest depth: 55.4mm [54.2-56.7]. A minimal feedback depth of 38mm would meet the minimum pediatric AHA target for depth in 55% (82/148) of subjects, and coach too deep in only 2% (3/148).
Extension of adult-based CPR quality monitoring and feedback systems will require pediatric-specific tailoring and adaptation. Future studies should examine chest compression depths in clinical settings with correlation to physiologic parameters to determine the best targets for pediatric CPR guidelines.
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ABSTRACT: Background-Although survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest is likely to vary among hospitals caring for children, validated methods to risk-standardize pediatric survival rates across sites do not currently exist. Methods and Results-From 2006 to 2010, within the American Heart Association's Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation registry for in-hospital cardiac arrest, we identified 1551 cardiac arrests in children (<18 years). Using multivariable hierarchical logistic regression, we developed and validated a model to predict survival to hospital discharge and calculated risk-standardized rates of cardiac arrest survival for hospitals with a minimum of 10 pediatric cardiac arrest cases. A total of 13 patient-level predictors were identified: age, sex, cardiac arrest rhythm, location of arrest, mechanical ventilation, acute nonstroke neurological event, major trauma, hypotension, metabolic or electrolyte abnormalities, renal insufficiency, sepsis, illness category, and need for intravenous vasoactive agents prior to the arrest. The model had good discrimination (C-statistic of 0.71), confirmed by bootstrap validation (validation C-statistic of 0.69). Among 30 hospitals with >= 10 cardiac arrests, unadjusted hospital survival rates varied considerably (median, 37%; interquartile range, 24-42%; range, 0-61%). After risk-standardization, the range of hospital survival rates narrowed (median, 37%; interquartile range, 33-38%; range, 29-48%), but variation in survival persisted. Conclusions-Using a national registry, we developed and validated a model to predict survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest in children. After risk-standardization, significant variation in survival rates across hospitals remained. Leveraging these models, future studies can identify best practices at high-performing hospitals to improve survival outcomes for pediatric cardiac arrest.Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 06/2014; 7(4). DOI:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.113.000691 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to report, for the first time, quantitative data on CPR quality during the resuscitation of children under 8 years of age. We hypothesized that the CPR performed would often not achieve 2010 Pediatric Basic Life Support (BLS) Guidelines, but would improve with the addition of audiovisual feedback. Prospective observational cohort evaluating CPR quality during chest compression (CC) events in children between 1 and 8 years of age. CPR recording defibrillators collected CPR data (rate (CC/min), depth (mm), CC fraction (CCF), leaning (%>2.5kg.)). Audiovisual feedback was according to 2010 Guidelines in a subset of patients. The primary outcome, "excellent CPR" was defined as a CC rate ≥ 100 and ≤ 120 CC/min, depth ≥ 50mm, CCF>0.80, and<20% of CC with leaning. 8 CC events resulted in 285 thirty-second epochs of CPR (15,960 CCs). Percentage of epochs achieving targets was 54% (153/285) for rate, 19% (54/285) for depth, 88% (250/285) for CCF, 79% (226/285) for leaning, and 8% (24/285) for excellent CPR. The median percentage of epochs per event achieving targets increased with audiovisual feedback for rate [88 (IQR: 79, 94) vs. 39 (IQR 18, 62) %; p=0.043] and excellent CPR [28 (IQR: 7.2, 52) vs. 0 (IQR: 0, 1) %; p=0.018]. In-hospital pediatric CPR often does not meet 2010 Pediatric BLS Guidelines, but compliance is better when audiovisual feedback is provided to rescuers.Resuscitation 08/2013; 85(1). DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.08.014 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of instituting the 2010 Basic Life Support Guidelines on in-hospital pediatric and adolescent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality. We hypothesized that quality would improve, but that targets for chest compression (CC) depth would be difficult to achieve. Prospective in-hospital observational study comparing CPR quality 24 months before and after release of the 2010 Guidelines. CPR recording/feedback-enabled defibrillators collected CPR data (rate (CC/min), depth (mm), CC fraction (CCF, %), leaning (%>2.5kg.)). Audiovisual feedback for depth was: 2005 ≥ 38mm; 2010 ≥ 50mm; for rate: 2005 ≥ 90 and ≤ 120 CC/min; 2010 ≥ 100 and ≤ 120 CC/min. The primary outcome was average event depth compared with Student's t-test. 45 CPR events (25 before; 20 after) occurred, resulting in 1336 thirty-second epochs (909 before; 427 after). Compared to 2005, average event depth (50±13 vs. 43±9mm; p=0.047), rate (113±11 vs. 104±8 CC/min; p<0.01), and CCF (0.94 [0.93, 0.96] vs. 0.9 [0.85, 0.94]; p=0.013) increased during 2010. CPR epochs during the 2010 period more likely to meet Guidelines for CCF (OR 1.7; CI95: 1.2-2.4; p<0.01), but less likely for rate (OR 0.23; CI95: 0.12-0.44; p<0.01), and depth (OR 0.31; CI95: 0.12-0.86; p=0.024). Institution of the 2010 Guidelines was associated with increased CC depth, rate, and CC fraction; yet, achieving 2010 targets for rate and depth was difficult.Resuscitation 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.07.029 · 3.96 Impact Factor