Nobiletin improves brain ischemia-induced learning and memory deficits through stimulation of CaMKII and CREB phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT Decreased cerebral blood flow causes cognitive impairments and neuronal injury in the progressive age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia. In the present study, we for the first time found that nobiletin, a novel leading compound for AD therapy, improved cerebral ischemia-induced memory deficits in vivo. Treatment with 50 mg/kg of nobiletin (i.p.) for the consecutive 7 days before and after brain ischemia significantly inhibited delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in a 20-min bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) ischemia. However, the contextual memory assessed by passive avoidance task was not improved. On the other hand, a 5-min BCCAO-induced contextual memory deficit was significantly improved by the nobiletin treatment. In the 5-min BCCAO mice, Western blot analysis evidently showed that the levels of synaptic proteins, including calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), significantly decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region. The nobiletin treatment prevented the reduction in CaMKII, MAP2 and GluR1 protein levels in the hippocampal CA1 region, accompanied by restoration of both ERK and CREB phosphorylation and CaMKII autophosphorylation. Consistent with the restored CaMKII and ERK phosphorylation, an electrophysiological study showed that the impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) observed in the 5-min ischemic mice was significantly improved by the nobiletin treatment. These findings suggest that the activation of CaMKII and ERK signaling in part mediates improvement of ischemia-induced learning and memory deficits by nobiletin.
- SourceAvailable from: Hiroki C Tanabe[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND and Reports suggesting the involvement of apoptosis in ischemic neuronal damage have been accumulating, and protection against apoptotic death by BCL-2 has been shown in many types of cells. Overexpression of BCL-2 has been shown to reduce infarct size after focal ischemia. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether BCL-2 exerted its effect on selective neuronal vulnerability after transient global ischemia. Transgenic mice overexpressing BCL-2 in neurons and their littermates were subjected to transient forebrain ischemia for 12 minutes, and the hippocampus was examined 7 days later with conventional histology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling of fragmented DNA. Although both types of mice showed a similar degree of ischemic insult, transgenic mice showed a lesser degree of neuronal death together with DNA fragmentation in the hippocampus than their littermates. Overexpression of BCL-2 in neurons mitigates selective neuronal vulnerability in the hippocampus of transgenic mice after transient global ischemia.Stroke 01/1999; 29(12):2616-21. · 6.16 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We studied changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of the beta amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in experimental ischemic brain injury. Rats with repeated reversible occlusions of one middle cerebral artery showed striking APP reactivity in astrocytic processes in perifocal regions and adjacent white matter. APP reactive dystrophic axons and neurons were also evident in the cortex and hippocampus ipsilateral to the MCA occlusion. Such changes were similarly apparent in animals subjected to partial forebrain ischemia induced by bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries. Our studies suggest that focal ischemic insults or chronic hypoperfusion leads to increased accumulation or induction of APP in surviving cellular elements that may relate to the processes involved in beta amyloid deposition in AD.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 10/1993; 695:190-3. · 4.38 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transient cerebral ischemia following 1 to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the rat leads to infarction, which can be diminished by synaptic transmission modulators, implying aberrant cell signaling in the pathogenetic process. The authors report here changes in the levels of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins (PTyr) and calcium calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation of Thr 286, in synaptosomal, particulate, and cytosolic fractions of different cortical areas following 1 or 2 hours of MCAO, or 2 hours of MCAO followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. At the end of 2-hour MCAO, PTyr, and in particular the pp180, indicative of NR2A/B subunit, increased in the synaptosomal fraction in less ischemic areas while it decreased in more severe ischemic regions. During reperfusion, phosphorylation increased at least 2-fold in all reperfused areas. During 2 hours of MCAO, the phosphorylation of CaMKII increased 8- to 10-fold in the synaptosomal fraction in all ischemic brain regions. During reperfusion, the phospho-CaMKII levels remained elevated by approximately 300% compared with the contralateral hemisphere (control). There was no increase in phospho-CaMKII in the cytosolic fraction at any time during or following ischemia in any of the brain regions examined. The authors conclude that both tyrosine kinase coupled pathways, as well as CaMKII-mediated cellular processes associated with synaptic activity, are strongly activated during and particularly following MCAO. These results support the hypothesis that aberrant cell signaling may contribute to ischemic cell death and dysfunction, and that selective modulators of cell signaling may be targets for pharmacological intervention against ischemic brain damage.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 10/2002; 22(9):1107-13. · 5.40 Impact Factor