The Conserved NDR Kinase Orb6 Controls Polarized Cell Growth by Spatial Regulation of the Small GTPase Cdc42
ABSTRACT The conserved NDR kinase regulates cell morphogenesis and polarized cell growth in different eukaryotic cells ranging from yeast to neurons. Although studies have unraveled the mechanism of regulation of NDR kinase activity, the mechanism of morphology control by NDR and the effectors that mediate NDR function are unknown. Via a chemical genetic approach, we show that the fission yeast NDR homolog, Orb6 kinase, maintains polarized cell growth at the cell tips by spatially regulating the localization of Cdc42 GTPase, a key morphology regulator. Loss of Orb6 kinase activity leads to the recruitment of Cdc42 GTPase and the Cdc42-dependent formin For3, normally found only at the cell tips, to the cell sides. Furthermore, we show that loss of Orb6 kinase activity leads to ectopic lateral localization of the Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Gef1, but not of the other Cdc42 GEF, Scd1. Consistent with these observations, gef1 deletion suppresses the increased cell diameter phenotype of orb6 mutants. In contrast, the microtubule cytoskeleton and the localization of the microtubule-dependent polarity markers Tea1 and Tea4 are not altered by loss of Orb6 kinase activity. Our findings indicate that the conserved NDR kinase Orb6 regulates cell polarity by spatially restricting the localization and activity of Cdc42 GTPase.
Article: Fungal Morphogenesis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Morphogenesis in fungi is often induced by extracellular factors and executed by fungal genetic factors. Cell surface changes and alterations of the microenvironment often accompany morphogenetic changes in fungi. In this review, we will first discuss the general traits of yeast and hyphal morphotypes and how morphogenesis affects development and adaptation by fungi to their native niches, including host niches. Then we will focus on the molecular machinery responsible for the two most fundamental growth forms, yeast and hyphae. Last, we will describe how fungi incorporate exogenous environmental and host signals together with genetic factors to determine their morphotype and how morphogenesis, in turn, shapes the fungal microenvironment.Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 11/2014; DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a019679 · 7.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nuclear Dbf-related/large tumor suppressor (NDR/LATS) kinases have been shown recently to control pathways that regulate mitotic exit, cytokinesis, cell growth, morphological changes and apoptosis. LATS kinases are core components of the Hippo signaling cascade and important tumor suppressors controlling cell proliferation and organ size in flies and mammals, and homologs are also present in yeast and Dictyostelium discoideum. Ras proto-oncogens regulate many biological functions, including differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Dysfunctions of LATS kinases or Ras GTPases have been implicated in the development of a variety of cancers in humans.BMC Cell Biology 07/2014; 15(1):25. DOI:10.1186/1471-2121-15-25 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cellular morphogenesis relies partly on cell polarization by the cytoskeleton. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, it is well established that microtubules (MTs) deliver the spatial cue Tea1, a kelch repeat protein, to the tip regions to direct the growth machinery at the cell tips driving the linear extension of the rod-shaped organism to maintain a straight long axis. Here, we report the characterization of Knk1 (kink), a previously unidentified member of the superfamily of ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA(+)), whose deletion causes a unique morphological defect characterized by the formation of kinks close to cell tips. Through genetic analysis, we place Knk1 into a novel pathway controlling cell shape independently of MTs and Tea1. Knk1 localizes at cell tips. Its localization is mediated by the Knk1 N terminus and is enhanced upon ATP binding to the C-terminal ATPase domain. Furthermore, Knk1 tip recruitment is regulated by SRC-like adaptor 2 (Sla2) and cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) independently of Sla2's role in endocytosis. Finally, we discovered that Knk1 shows an anticorrelated oscillatory behavior between the two cell tips at a periodicity that is different from the reported oscillatory Cdc42 dynamics.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2014; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1407226111 · 9.81 Impact Factor