Benefits of napping in healthy adults: Rmpact of nap length, time of day, age, and experience with napping

Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario L2S 3A1, Canada.
Journal of Sleep Research (Impact Factor: 3.35). 07/2009; 18(2):272-81. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00718.x
Source: PubMed


Napping is a cross-cultural phenomenon which occurs across the lifespan. People vary widely in the frequency with which they nap as well as the improvements in alertness and well-being experienced. The systematic study of daytime napping is important to understand the benefits in alertness and performance that may be accrued from napping. This review paper investigates factors that affect the benefits of napping such as duration and temporal placement of the nap. In addition, the influence of subject characteristics such as age and experience with napping is examined. The focus of the review is on benefits for healthy individuals with regular sleep/wake schedules rather than for people with sleep or medical disorders. The goal of the review is to summarize the type of performance improvements that result from napping, critique the existing studies, and make recommendations for future research.

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    • "Neuroscience advocates midday napping for the following cases: (a) response to sleep loss, i.e. replacement napping (Waterhouse et al. 2007; Faraut et al. 2011); (b) in preparation for sleep loss, i.e. prophylactic napping (Jackson and Moreton 2013); or (c) simply nap for relaxation, i.e. appetitive napping (Mednick 2013). Even for individuals who, generally, get good sleep on a nightly basis, napping still may lead to considerable benefits in terms of mood, alertness, and cognitive performance (Milner and Cote 2009). Besides, in healthy and rested subjects, midday napping enhances memory tasks performance (Mednick et al. 2002; Mednick et al. 2003; Tucker et al. 2006; Nishida and Walker 2007; Mednick et al. 2008; Cai et al. 2009; Wamsley et al. 2010a; Payne and Kensinger 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Napping/siesta during the day is a phenomenon, which is widely practised in the world. However, the timing, frequency, and duration may vary. The basis of napping is also diverse, but it is mainly done for improvement in alertness and general well-being. Neuroscience reveals that midday napping improves memory, enhances alertness, boosts wakefulness and performance, and recovers certain qualities of lost night sleep. Interestingly, Islam, the religion of the Muslims, advocates midday napping primarily because it was a practice preferred by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The objectives of this review were to investigate and compare identical key points on focused topic from both neuroscientific and Islamic perspectives and make recommendations for future researches.
    Journal of Religion and Health 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10943-015-0093-7 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    • "The frequency of napping usually increases with age [3] [4] [5] [6], and it is higher in men than that in women [6] [7]. Traditionally, daytime napping is usually considered a healthy habit, and it is often linked with the low incidence of coronary heart disease and high tendency of longevity [8] through a hypothetical " stress relief " mechanism [9] in Latin American and Mediterranean countries. "
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    ABSTRACT: The association between daytime napping and mortality remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the associations between daytime napping and the risks of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. PubMed and Embase databases were searched through 19 September 2014. Prospective cohort studies that provided risk estimates of daytime napping and mortality were eligible for our meta-analysis. Two investigators independently performed study screening and data extraction. A random-effects model was used to estimate the combined effect size. Subgroup analyses were conducted to identify potential effect modifiers. Twelve studies, involving 130,068 subjects, 49,791 nappers, and 19,059 deaths, were included. Our meta-analysis showed that daytime napping was associated with an increased risk of death from all causes [n = 9 studies; hazard ratio (HR), 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.31; I(2) = 42.5%]. No significant associations between daytime napping and the risks of death from CVD (n = 6 studies; HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.96-1.50; I(2) = 75.0%) and cancer (n = 4 studies; HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.99-1.15; I(2) = 8.9%) were found. There were no significant differences in risks of all-cause and CVD mortality between subgroups stratified by the prevalence of napping, follow-up duration, outcome assessment, age, and sex. Daytime napping is a predictor of increased all-cause mortality but not of CVD and cancer mortality. However, our findings should be treated with caution because of limited numbers of included studies and potential biases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Sleep Medicine 04/2015; 16(7). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2015.01.025 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    • "To the best of our knowledge, the WS has yet to be validated for daytime sleep (naps). Although few studies have investigated differences between daytime and nocturnal sleep architecture (Milner & Cote, 2009), daytime sleep is known to have increased wakefulness and stage 1 sleep (15% vs. 2%; Nishida & Walker, 2007; Payne et al., 2009; Wamsley, Tucker, Payne, Benavides, & Stickgold, 2010; Wamsley, Tucker, Payne, & Stickgold, 2010), and lower sleep efficiency than nocturnal sleep. Decreased sleep efficiency (SE) during daytime naps (e.g., between 68% and 77% SE; Kanady, Drummond, & Mednick, 2011; Nishida & Walker, 2007; Tucker et al., 2006) is mainly due to the " weight " of sleep onset latency in a short sleep period. "
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    ABSTRACT: An automated wireless system (WS) for sleep monitoring was recently developed and validated for assessing nighttime sleep. Here, we aimed to evaluate the validity of the WS to correctly monitor daytime sleep during naps compared to polysomnography (PSG). We found that the WS underestimated wake, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and overestimated total sleep time, sleep efficiency and duration of REM sleep. Sensitivity was moderate for wake (58.51%) and light sleep (66.92%) and strong for deep sleep (83.46%) and REM sleep (82.12%). These results demonstrated that the WS had a low ability to detect wake and systematically over-scored REM sleep, implicating the WS as an inadequate substitute for PSG in diagnosing sleep disorders or for research in which sleep staging is essential.
    Behavioral Sleep Medicine 02/2015; 13(2):157-168. DOI:10.1080/15402002.2013.845782 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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