Increased lipid peroxidation in Down's syndrome mouse models.
ABSTRACT Elevated oxidative stress has been suggested to be associated with the features of Down's syndrome (DS). We previously reported increased oxidative stress in cultured cells from the embryonic brain of Ts1Cje, a mouse genetic DS model. However, since in vivo evidence for increased oxidative stress is lacking, we here examined lipid peroxidation, a typical marker of oxidative stress, in the brains of Ts1Cje and another DS mouse model Ts2Cje with an overlapping but larger trisomic segment. Accumulations of proteins modified with the lipid peroxidation-derived products, 13-hydroperoxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were markedly increased in Ts1Cje and Ts2Cje brains. Analysis with oxidation-sensitive fluorescent probe also showed that reactive oxygen species themselves were increased in Ts1Cje brain. However, electron spin resonance analysis of microdialysate from the hippocampus of Ts1Cje showed that antioxidant activity remained unaffected, suggesting that the reactive oxygen species production was accelerated in Ts1Cje. Proteomics approaches with mass spectrometry identified the proteins modified with 13-hydroperoxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid and/or 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal to be involved in either ATP generation, the neuronal cytoskeleton or antioxidant activity. Structural or functional impairments of these proteins by such modifications may contribute to the DS features such as cognitive impairment that are present in the Ts1Cje mouse.