Preserved Implicit Knowledge of a Forgotten Childhood Language

University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TU, UK.
Psychological Science (Impact Factor: 4.43). 08/2009; 20(9):1064-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02407.x
Source: PubMed


Previous research suggests that a language learned during early childhood is completely forgotten when contact to that language is severed. In contrast with these findings, we report leftover traces of early language exposure in individuals in their adult years, despite a complete absence of explicit memory for the language. Specifically, native English individuals under age 40 selectively relearned subtle Hindi or Zulu sound contrasts that they once knew. However, individuals over 40 failed to show any relearning, and young control participants with no previous exposure to Hindi or Zulu showed no learning. This research highlights the lasting impact of early language experience in shaping speech perception, and the value of exposing children to foreign languages even if such exposure does not continue into adulthood.

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Available from: Suzi H Gage, Sep 02, 2014
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    • "Therefore, while participants were able to relearn earlyexposed information after relatively brief training, it could be that this is facilitated by the modest amount of time that has elapsed between initial exposure to the birth language and age at testing. Certainly, there is no reason to believe that our training was any more effective than that of Bowers et al. (2009), suggesting that the extent of training required may be proportional to the length of time between initial exposure and re-exposure. This remains an empirical question for which further testing with different samples, varying more substantially in length of time between initial exposure and retraining, is required. "
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