Supratentorial abnormalities in the Chiari II malformation, III: The interhemispheric cyst.
ABSTRACT Our clinical observations noted an interhemispheric "cyst," a protrusion of the posterior superior third ventricle, in fetuses with myelomeningocele (MMC). The study analyzed the frequency of this observation and features that influence its visualization.
We searched for cases of fetal MMC sonographically detected between 1999 and 2007. Intracranial findings were retrospectively reviewed with attention to the interhemispheric cistern. Additionally, we reviewed 25 fetuses without a central nervous system anomaly and 10 fetuses with ventriculomegaly but no MMC.
Among 89 fetuses identified, the mean gestational age was 22 weeks 4 days. Thirty-eight (43%) had an interhemispheric cyst. The frequency was similar on sonograms judged to be well visualized compared with studies judged to be suboptimally visualized. The degree of ventriculomegaly, timing of diagnosis, and severity of the Chiari II malformation did not appear to influence the frequency of the finding. Among fetuses without a central nervous system anomaly, no interhemispheric cysts were detected; a cyst was detected in 1 of 10 fetuses with ventriculomegaly. Interhemispheric cysts were more likely to be detected in fetuses with the Chiari II malformation than fetuses with ventriculomegaly but without the Chiari II malformation (P = .04).
Interhemispheric cysts are a common supratentorial feature of the Chiari II malformation. Their presence appears to be unrelated to other features of the Chiari II malformation. Although interhemispheric cysts are seen in other abnormal fetuses, their striking prevalence in the Chiari II malformation should lead to a thorough examination for MMC.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Variation exists in the surgical methods employed for decompression of Chiari II malformation (CIIM), yet an evaluation of these techniques has not been performed. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of bony decompression (cervical laminectomy alone versus suboccipital craniectomy with laminectomy) with or without dural augmentation for the treatment of symptomatic CIIM. METHODS: Clinical records of children 0-18 years of age who underwent surgical repair of myelomeningocele or CIIM decompression at St. Louis Children's Hospital (SLCH) from 1990-2011 were reviewed. Signs/symptoms prompting decompression, surgical technique, operative parameters, and clinical outcomes were recorded for analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-three subjects were treated at SLCH for CIIM decompression. Twenty-six subjects underwent bony decompression only (21 cervical laminectomy alone, 5 suboccipital craniectomy + cervical laminectomy) while seven underwent bony decompression with upfront dural augmentation (three cervical laminectomy alone, four suboccipital craniectomy + cervical laminectomy). Median follow up was 5.0 years (range, 3 months-19 years). Symptomatic improvement was noted in 20/33 subjects (60.6 %). Sixty-two (61.5 %) percent of children who underwent bony decompression had symptomatic improvement, compared with 57.1 % of those with upfront dural augmentation (p = 0.37). Estimated blood loss, operative time, and length of perioperative hospital stay appeared lower in the bony decompression group but were not statistically different in this limited cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this series suggest that bony CIIM decompression via tailored cervical laminectomies alone, without suboccipital craniectomy or upfront dural augmentation, is a reasonable initial management approach for decompression of symptomatic CIIM.Child s Nervous System 02/2013; 29(7). DOI:10.1007/s00381-013-2040-9 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ultrasound finding of the 'tulip sign' has been described as "unique sonographic picture of hypospadias". In some special conditions, if a fetus with spina bifida or a complex malformation which includes spina bifida, sits in breech presentation, this finding could indicate a neurogenic incontinence, like in our case. The autors assumed that in this case, the ventral flexion of the penis was the result of the neurogenically induced atony of the penis and the gravitational force.Gynaecologia et Perinatologia 06/2010; 19(2):97-100.