Prevalence of Salmonella associated with chick mortality at hatching and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents

Bacterial Research Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, PMB 01, Vom, Plateau, Nigeria.
Veterinary Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.51). 08/2009; 140(1-2):131-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.07.009
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of Salmonella associated mortality at hatching was investigated in three hatcheries in Jos, central Nigeria. Their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was also evaluated. S. Kentucky and S. Hadar were isolated. While half of the isolates were from internal organs, 26.7% came from meconial swabs of dead-in-shell embryos, 17.8% from intestinal samples and 4.4% from egg shells. S. Hadar is known to colonise only the gut and is classified as non-invasive, but in this study 82% were obtained from internal organs which suggests that infections with this serotype may also cause invasive disease. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in the study area with complete resistance to gentamycin, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and streptomycin and substantial resistance to triple sulphur and ciprofloxacin. Six multiple resistance profiles were recorded with a high level of multiple resistance to quinolones. Quinolone resistance has implications for veterinary and human therapy as their misuse in poultry could lead to the emergence of resistant animal and zoonotic pathogens.

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    • "Fluoroquinolones are one of the few classes of antimicrobial agents with activity against the full range of pathogens involved in broiler chickens, such as Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, Shigella or Escherichia coli, being commonly used. In addition, fluoroquinolones have often been used for the treatment of C. jejuni and species of nontyphoidal Salmonella in humans (Luangtongkum et al., 2009; Muhammad et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cornejo, J., Lapierre, L., Iragüen, D., Cornejo, S., Cassus, G., Richter, P., San Martín, B. Study of enrofloxacin and flumequine residues depletion in eggs of laying hens after oral administration. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 35, 67–72. Two groups of laying hens (each n = 12) were administered 10 mg/kg enrofloxacin (ENRO) (group A) or 26.6 mg/kg flumequine (FLU) (group B) by gastric catheter daily for five consecutive days. A third group (n = 6) was untreated controls. Eggs were collected from day one of treatment and up to 30 days after withdrawal of the drug. Egg white and yolk from each egg were separated, and ENRO, its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIP) and FLU residues were analysed by a high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection. The sum of ENRO and CIP was detectable in egg white on the first day of treatment in high-level concentrations (2007.7 μg/kg) and remained steady during administration. In egg yolk, residues were detectable at day one in lower concentrations (324.4 μg/kg), increasing to the end of treatment. After treatment, these residues decreased and were detectable up to day 8 in egg white, and day 10 in yolk. FLU residues during drug administration in white were detectable in high concentrations from day one to five (6788.4–6525.9 μg/kg), and in yolk, concentrations were lower during administration (629.6–853.9 μg/kg). After drug withdrawal, FLU residues remained longer in egg white (30 days) than in yolk (26 days). For both drugs, differences of concentrations between matrices were significant.
    Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 03/2011; 35(1):67-72. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2885.2011.01283.x · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica continues to be a significant cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness in humans. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars have been isolated from production birds and from retail poultry meat. Recently, though, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has emerged as one of the prominent Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler chickens. Recent work suggests that its emergence apparently coincides with its acquisition of a ColV virulence plasmid. In the present study, we examined 902 Salmonella isolates belonging to 59 different serovars for the presence of this plasmid. Of the serovars examined, the ColV plasmid was found only among isolates belonging to the serovars Kentucky (72.9%), Typhimurium (15.0%) and Heidelberg (1.7%). We demonstrated that a single PFGE clonal type of S. Kentucky harbors this plasmid, and acquisition of this plasmid by S. Kentucky significantly increased its ability to colonize the chicken cecum and cause extraintestinal disease. Comparison of the completed sequences of three ColV plasmids from S. Kentucky isolated from different geographical locales, timepoints and sources revealed a nearly identical genetic structure with few single nucleotide changes or insertions/deletions. Overall, it appears that the ColV plasmid was recently acquired by a single clonal type S. Kentucky and confers to its host enhanced colonization and fitness capabilities. Thus, the potential for horizontal gene transfer of virulence and fitness factors to Salmonella from other enteric bacteria exists in poultry, representing a potential human health hazard.
    PLoS ONE 12/2010; 5(12):e15524. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0015524 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Modern livestock production method involves the use of antimicrobial agents as an effective way to fight against various infections. The effectiveness of drugs depends on their proper and controlled use. A particular problem is bacteria, such as Salmonella, which are important for human and veterinary medicine. The mechanism of resistance developed in bacteria depends on the activity of antibacterial preparations. Target molecules for the group chinolone antibiotics are enzymes involved in DNA replication of cells. Quinolone bactericidal activity disrupts the function of bacterial gyrase thereby blocking DNA synthesis and causes cell death. Nalidixic acid is a prototype of quinolone, and along with several other compounds, forms the group of first and second generation of this type of antimicrobial agents. The subject of our work is to monitor the sensitivity of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella infantis to nalidixic acid as a method of indicating the presence of bacterial resistance to quinolones. The aim is to determine whether the resistance to mentioned nalidixic acid in Salmonella serovarety is present, are there differences in resistance between them and what the possible cause of these differences are. The examination was carried out on strains isolated from poultry samples. The most presented strans in both examined years were S. enteritidis and S. infantis (more than 90%). Monitoring the sensitivity of these serotypes toward nalidixic acid it was found that in 2009 S. enteritidis showed sensitivity with 88.46% and in 2010 year 81.25%. S. infantis strains showed quite a different sensitivity, i.e. the resistance to nalidixic acid. The presence of 75% resistant strains in 2009 and 68.18% resistant strains in 2010 were determined.The difference of sensitivity of isolated serovariety indicate the need to use molecular methods and try to detect not only the mechanisms of resistance but also epizootiological, epidemiological and perhaps reasons, but also the origin and circulation of strains, and determine phenotype characteristics.
    01/2011; 27(3). DOI:10.2298/BAH1103751S
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