Prevalence of Salmonella associated with chick mortality at hatching and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents.
ABSTRACT The prevalence of Salmonella associated mortality at hatching was investigated in three hatcheries in Jos, central Nigeria. Their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was also evaluated. S. Kentucky and S. Hadar were isolated. While half of the isolates were from internal organs, 26.7% came from meconial swabs of dead-in-shell embryos, 17.8% from intestinal samples and 4.4% from egg shells. S. Hadar is known to colonise only the gut and is classified as non-invasive, but in this study 82% were obtained from internal organs which suggests that infections with this serotype may also cause invasive disease. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in the study area with complete resistance to gentamycin, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and streptomycin and substantial resistance to triple sulphur and ciprofloxacin. Six multiple resistance profiles were recorded with a high level of multiple resistance to quinolones. Quinolone resistance has implications for veterinary and human therapy as their misuse in poultry could lead to the emergence of resistant animal and zoonotic pathogens.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the molecular diversity of 29 Salmonella serotypes isolated from turkey ceca and the production environment. Isolates were resistant to bacitracin (100%), erythromycin (100%), novobiocin (100%), rifampin (100%), streptomycin (62%), gentamicin (52%), spectinomycin (48%), tetracycline (31%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT) (3%) and tobramycin (3%). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 32 to >/=1024 microg/ml. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping patterns were identical within each of the serotypes Heidelberg, Worthington and Muenster. The plasmid profiles were identical within each of the Salmonella serotypes. Two different clones of Salmonella anatum were differentiated by PFGE typing but not by ribotyping. Heidelberg isolates from nine turkey ceca and three drinker samples had identical antibiotic resistance, PFGE, ribotype and plasmid patterns, suggesting that transmission of this particular clone may have occurred between the birds and the drinkers. Identical PFGE, ribotype and plasmid patterns were observed in one Salmonella worthington isolate from turkey ceca in one flock and two S. worthington isolates from feeder contents and drinkers from a subsequent flock, suggesting transmission of this pathogen between flocks. Individual and multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed the presence of the virulence genes invA, aceK and sopB and the absence of the h-1i gene in all isolates. A combination of genotypic and phenotypic markers can be useful in studying genetic variation among natural salmonellae populations in turkey production and delineating possible transmission pathways.International Journal of Food Microbiology 03/2004; 91(1):51-62. · 3.43 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of antimicrobial selective pressure on the transmission of antimicrobial resistant and sensitive strains of Salmonella in poultry. Eight pens housed 12 broiler chicks each. Two chicks in four of the pens were inoculated with a Salm. Typhimurium strain resistant to 12 antimicrobials (including tetracycline), and two chicks in each of the four other pens were inoculated with a strain sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. Two pens inoculated with each strain were treated with chlortetracycline and two were not. Chicks were killed on day 7 and caeca were cultured for Salmonella. Experiments were performed independently twice. Chicks exposed to pen mates inoculated with the resistant strain and treated with tetracycline were 90% positive for Salmonella; whereas 60% of chicks given no antimicrobials were positive. Chicks exposed to the sensitive strain were 95% positive with tetracycline treatment and 90% positive without treatment. A multidrug-resistant Salm. Typhimurium strain had significantly increased transmission when chicks were treated with tetracycline. Transmission of a sensitive strain was not inhibited by antimicrobial selective pressure at recommended therapeutic dose. This study demonstrates that antimicrobial usage may influence the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in poultry.Journal of Applied Microbiology 01/2007; 101(6):1301-8. · 2.20 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Animal feed is increasingly being supplemented with antibiotics to decrease the risk of epidemics in animal husbandry. This practice could lead to the selection for antibiotic resistant micro-organisms. The aim of this study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistant bacteria present on retail and abattoir chicken. Staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella and isolates from total aerobic plate count were tested for resistance to vancomycin, streptomycin, methicillin, tetracycline and gentamicin using the disc diffusion susceptibility test; resistance to penicillin was determined using oxacillin. Results from the antibiotic code profile indicated that many of the bacterial strains were displaying multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR). A larger proportion of resistance to most antibiotics, except for vancomycin, was displayed by the abattoir samples, therefore suggesting that the incidence of MAR pathogenic bacteria was also higher in the abattoir samples. This resistance spectrum of abattoir samples is a result of farmers adding low doses of antibiotics to livestock feed to improve feeding efficiency so that the animals need less food to reach marketable weight. The lower incidence of MAR pathogenic bacteria in the retail samples is a result of resistance genes being lost due to lack of selective pressure, or to the fact that the resistant flora are being replaced by more sensitive flora during processing. The use of subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics for prophylaxis and as growth promoters remains a concern as the laws of evolution dictate that microbes will eventually develop resistance to practically any antibiotic. Selective pressure exerted by widespread antimicrobial use is therefore the driving force in the development of antibiotic resistance. This study indicated that a large proportion of the bacterial flora on fresh chicken is resistant to a variety of antibiotics, and that resultant food-related infections will be more difficult to treat.Letters in Applied Microbiology 05/1998; 26(4):253-8. · 1.63 Impact Factor