Prevalence of Salmonella associated with chick mortality at hatching and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents
ABSTRACT The prevalence of Salmonella associated mortality at hatching was investigated in three hatcheries in Jos, central Nigeria. Their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was also evaluated. S. Kentucky and S. Hadar were isolated. While half of the isolates were from internal organs, 26.7% came from meconial swabs of dead-in-shell embryos, 17.8% from intestinal samples and 4.4% from egg shells. S. Hadar is known to colonise only the gut and is classified as non-invasive, but in this study 82% were obtained from internal organs which suggests that infections with this serotype may also cause invasive disease. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in the study area with complete resistance to gentamycin, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and streptomycin and substantial resistance to triple sulphur and ciprofloxacin. Six multiple resistance profiles were recorded with a high level of multiple resistance to quinolones. Quinolone resistance has implications for veterinary and human therapy as their misuse in poultry could lead to the emergence of resistant animal and zoonotic pathogens.
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ABSTRACT: The present study analyzes the characteristics of Salmonella spp. from broiler chicken farms in Brazil. In total, 82 Salmonella spp. strains were characterized by serotyping, determining susceptibility to antimicrobials, and using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifteen Salmonella serotypes were identified, among which Minnesota (40.24%), Infantis (14.63%), Heidelberg (7.31%), Senftenberg (6.09%), and Mbandaka (6.09%) were the most frequent. Salmonella Minnesota occurred mostly in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and in one of the broiler companies surveyed. Approximately 60% of the strains were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested. From these isolates, 17.07% were resistant to only one antimicrobial (tetracycline or streptomycin), and 9.75% were resistant to 3 or more antimicrobial classes. Thirteen resistance profiles were characterized, the most frequent of which were the resistance to tetracycline (15.85%); to the combination of trimethroprim with sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (10.97%); and to the combination of streptomycin and tetracycline (9.75%). Multiple correspondence analysis revealed that susceptibility or resistance of the analyzed strains and also particular Salmonella serotypes were associated with broiler-producing companies where the samples were collected. Strains presented high intraserotype genetic variability, as shown by the 64 PFGE profiles, suggesting the existence of several contamination sources in the surveyed farms. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.Poultry Science 01/2015; 94(3). DOI:10.3382/ps/peu081 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Modern livestock production method involves the use of antimicrobial agents as an effective way to fight against various infections. The effectiveness of drugs depends on their proper and controlled use. A particular problem is bacteria, such as Salmonella, which are important for human and veterinary medicine. The mechanism of resistance developed in bacteria depends on the activity of antibacterial preparations. Target molecules for the group chinolone antibiotics are enzymes involved in DNA replication of cells. Quinolone bactericidal activity disrupts the function of bacterial gyrase thereby blocking DNA synthesis and causes cell death. Nalidixic acid is a prototype of quinolone, and along with several other compounds, forms the group of first and second generation of this type of antimicrobial agents. The subject of our work is to monitor the sensitivity of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella infantis to nalidixic acid as a method of indicating the presence of bacterial resistance to quinolones. The aim is to determine whether the resistance to mentioned nalidixic acid in Salmonella serovarety is present, are there differences in resistance between them and what the possible cause of these differences are. The examination was carried out on strains isolated from poultry samples. The most presented strans in both examined years were S. enteritidis and S. infantis (more than 90%). Monitoring the sensitivity of these serotypes toward nalidixic acid it was found that in 2009 S. enteritidis showed sensitivity with 88.46% and in 2010 year 81.25%. S. infantis strains showed quite a different sensitivity, i.e. the resistance to nalidixic acid. The presence of 75% resistant strains in 2009 and 68.18% resistant strains in 2010 were determined.The difference of sensitivity of isolated serovariety indicate the need to use molecular methods and try to detect not only the mechanisms of resistance but also epizootiological, epidemiological and perhaps reasons, but also the origin and circulation of strains, and determine phenotype characteristics.01/2011; 27(3). DOI:10.2298/BAH1103751S
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ABSTRACT: We conducted an investigative study to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella contamination of poultry farms in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. A standardized questionnaire was used to collate data on farm management practices, demographic characteristics, farm-handlers personal hygiene and clinical information from August, 2012 to April, 2013. Odds ratios were computed using bivariate analysis. Results revealed 10.9% prevalence of Salmonella species from the study using standard bacteriological methods. Farm previously contaminated by Salmonella (OR48.0; CI 95%2.40-958.0), presence of rodents (OR 11.25; CI 95% 1.19-106.13), movement from one pen to the other by farm-handlers (OR4.38; CI 95% 1.10-33.9), running and parking truck near the entrance to poultry farms (p < 0.05) and the use of untreated water (p < 0.05) were found to be independently associated with an increased risk of Salmonella infection in broiler and layer flocks. Furthermore, the results indicates that application of specific hygiene measures in the farm, such as washing of hands after tending the flocks, use of footbath disinfection when entering the poultry house, may significantly reduce the risk of Salmonella infection in chicken and farm-handlers. However, the use of antibiotics and vaccination against Salmonella were found to be protective. Copyright © 2014 Agada et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.